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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
___________________________________
FORM 10-K
____________________________________
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________ to __________
Commission File Number 001-35504
FORUM ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
61-1488595
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
10344 Sam Houston Park DriveSuite 300HoustonTexas77064
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (713351-7900
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common stock, $0.01 par valueFETNew York Stock Exchange
(Title of Each Class)(Trading Symbol)(Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of Common Stock held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2021, determined using the per share closing price on the New York Stock Exchange Composite tape of $23.48 on June 30, 2021, was approximately $104.7 million. For this purpose, our executive officers and directors and SCF Partners L.P. and its affiliates are considered affiliates.
As of February 25, 2022, there were 5,652,723 common shares outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of our Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.
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Forum Energy Technologies, Inc.
Index to Form 10-K
PART I
PART II
PART III
PART IV
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PART I
Item 1. Business
Forum Energy Technologies, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company,” “FET,” “we,” “our” or “us”), is a global company serving the oil, natural gas, industrial and renewable energy industries. Our common shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “FET.” Our principal executive offices are located at 10344 Sam Houston Park Drive, Houston, Texas 77064, our telephone number is (713) 351-7900, and our website is www.f-e-t.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments thereto, are available free of charge in the “Investors” section of our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These reports are also available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Information contained on or accessible from our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this report or any other filing that we make with the SEC.
Overview
We are a global company serving the oil, natural gas, industrial and renewable energy industries. FET provides value added solutions aimed at improving the safety, efficiency, and environmental impact of our customers' operations. We are an environmentally and socially responsible company headquartered in Houston, Texas with manufacturing, distribution and service facilities strategically located throughout the world. Our products include highly engineered capital equipment as well as consumable products. These consumable products are used in drilling, well construction and completions activities, within the supporting infrastructure, and at processing centers and refineries. Our engineered capital products are directed at drilling rig equipment for new rigs, upgrades and refurbishment projects, subsea construction and development projects, pressure pumping equipment, the placement of production equipment on new producing wells, downstream capital projects and capital equipment for renewable energy projects. In 2021, over 78% of our revenue was derived from consumable products and activity-based equipment, while the balance was primarily derived from capital products with a small amount from rental and other services.
We design, manufacture and supply high quality reliable products that create value for our diverse customer base, which includes, among others, oil and natural gas operators, land and offshore drilling contractors, oilfield service companies, subsea construction and service companies, and pipeline and refinery operators. In addition, we offer some of our products to renewable energy and new energy companies for applications such as offshore wind, geothermal power and biogas.
We expect that the world's long-term energy demand will continue to rise with global population growth and that hydrocarbons will continue to play a vital role in meeting the world's long-term energy needs while renewable energy sources continue to develop. As such, we remain focused on serving our customers in both oil and natural gas applications, where we are continuing to develop products to lower operators’ current emissions. We are also deploying our existing product technologies in renewable energy applications and seeking to develop innovative equipment.
Our reporting segments align with business activity drivers and the manner in which management reviews and evaluates operating performance. FET operates in the following three reporting segments: Drilling & Downhole, Completions and Production. We believe that the reporting segment structure is aligned with the key phases of the well cycle and provides operating efficiencies.
We incorporate by reference the segment and geographic information for the last two years set forth in Note 18 Business Segments, and the information with respect to dispositions set forth in Note 4 Acquisitions & Dispositions.
DRILLING AND DOWNHOLE SEGMENT
Our Drilling & Downhole segment designs, manufactures and supplies products and provides related services to the drilling, well construction, artificial lift and subsea energy construction markets, including applications in oil and natural gas, renewable energy, defense, and communications. The products and related services consist primarily of (i) capital equipment and a broad line of expendable products consumed in the drilling process; (ii) well construction casing and cementing equipment and protection products for artificial lift equipment and cables; and (iii) subsea remotely operated vehicles and trenchers, submarine rescue vehicles, specialty components and tooling, and complementary subsea technical services.
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There are several factors that drive demand for our Drilling & Downhole segment. Our Drilling Technologies product line is influenced by global drilling activity; the level of capital investment in drilling rigs and equipment replacement as drilling contractors modify or replace existing rigs to increase capability or improve efficiency and safety; the number of rigs in use and the severity of operating conditions. Our Downhole Technologies product line is impacted by the level of well completion activity and complexity of well construction and completion. Our Subsea Technologies product line is affected by global offshore activity, defense spending, subsea equipment and pipeline installation, repair and maintenance expenditures, and growth in offshore windfarm development.
Drilling Technologies. We provide both drilling capital equipment and consumables, with a focus on products that enhance our customers’ handling of tubulars and drilling fluids on the drilling rig. Our product offering includes powered and manual tubular handling equipment; customized offline crane systems; drilling data acquisition management systems; pumps, pump parts, valves, and manifolds; drilling fluid end components; and a broad line of items consumed in the drilling process.
Drilling capital equipment. We design and manufacture a range of powered and manual tubular handling tools used on onshore and offshore drilling rigs. Our Forum B+V Oil Tools and Wrangler™ branded tools reduce direct human involvement in the handling of pipe during drilling operations, improving safety, speed and efficiency of operations. Our tubular handling tools include elevators, clamps, rotary slips, rotary tongs, powered slips, spiders and kelly spinners. Our hydraulic catwalks mechanize the lifting and lowering of tubulars to and from the drill floor, eliminating or reducing the need for traditional drill pipe and casing “pick-up and lay-down” operations with associated personnel. In addition, our make-up and break-out tools, called Forum Roughneck™, automate a dangerous rig floor task and improve rig drilling speed and safety. In addition, we also manufacture torque machines which allow customers to make up and break out complex tubulars and casing offline. We also design and manufacture a range of rig-based offline activity cranes and multi-purpose cranes.
In addition to powered tubular handling equipment, we design and manufacture drilling manifold systems and high pressure piping packages. Finally, we repair and service drilling equipment for both land and offshore rigs. Many of our service employees work in the field to address problems at the rig site.
Consumable products. We manufacture a range of consumable products used on drilling rigs, well servicing rigs, and hydraulic fracturing systems. Our consumable products include valves, centrifugal pumps, mud pump fluid end components, including P-Quip™ mud pump modules, Forumlok™, rig sensors, inserts, and dies. We are also a supplier of oilfield bearings, including FracMax™, to original equipment manufacturers and repair businesses for use in drilling and well stimulation equipment.
Downhole Technologies. We manufacture a broad line of downhole products that are consumed during the construction, completion and production phases of a well’s lifecycle.
Downhole protection systems. We offer a full selection of downhole protection solutions and artificial lift accessories through our various brands such as Cannon Services™ and Multilift. Our Cannon Services protectors are used to shield downhole control lines, cables and gauges during installation and to provide protection during production enhancement operations. We design and manufacture a variety of downhole protection solutions for electrical submersible pump (“ESP”) cabling, encapsulated control lines, sub-surface safety valves and permanent downhole gauges. We provide both standard and customized protection systems, and we utilize a range of materials in our products for various downhole environments. SandGuard™ and Cyclone™ branded completion tools extend the useful life of an ESP by protecting it against sand and other solids during shutdown and startup. Forum’s GasGuard™ branded product also extends the useful life of an ESP by breaking down gas slugs, creating an uninterrupted flow of liquid.
Casing and cementing tools. Through our Davis-Lynch™ branded downhole well construction operations, we design and manufacture products used in the construction of oil, natural gas and geothermal wells. We design and manufacture a full portfolio of centralizers, float equipment, stage cementing tools, inflatable packers, flotation collars, cementing plugs and surge reduction equipment. Our products are used globally in the construction of onshore and offshore wells.
Our primary customers in this product line are oil and natural gas producers, and service companies providing completions, artificial lift and other intervention services to producers.
Subsea Technologies. We design and manufacture capital equipment and specialty components used in the subsea sector and provide a broad suite of complementary technical services. We have a core focus on the design and manufacture of remotely operated vehicle (“ROV”) systems, other specialty subsea vehicles, and rescue
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submarines, as well as critical components of these vehicles. Many of our related technical services complement our vehicle offerings.
Subsea vehicles. We are a leading designer and manufacturer of a wide range of ROVs that we supply to the offshore subsea construction, observation and related service markets. The market for ROVs can be segmented into three broad classes of vehicles based on size and category of operations: (1) large work-class vehicles and trenchers for construction and installation activities, (2) drilling-class vehicles deployed from and for use around an offshore rig and (3) observation-class vehicles for inspection and light manipulation. We are a leading provider of work-class and observation class vehicles.
We design and manufacture large work-class ROVs through our highly respected Perry® brand. These vehicles are principally used in deepwater construction applications. In addition to work-class ROVs, we design and manufacture large trenchers that travel along the sea floor for trenching, installation and burial operations. The largest of these trenchers is able to cut over three meters deep into the seafloor to lay pipelines, power cables or communications cables for customers in the pipeline, offshore wind power and telecom markets.
Our Forum Sub-Atlantic® branded observation-class vehicles are electrically powered and are principally used for inspection, survey and light manipulation, and serve a wide range of industries.
In addition to ROVs, we design and manufacture subsea rescue vehicles capable of a range of tasks, including submarine rescue operations, diver support, seabed survey, port security, under hull search and a variety of other tasks.
Our subsea vehicle customers are primarily large offshore service companies that serve the oil and natural gas, telecommunications, offshore wind power, and other industries operating in marine environments. In addition, we sell products to a range of governmental organizations including naval, maritime science and geoscience research organizations.
Subsea products and technical services. We are also a leading designer and manufacturer of subsea products and components utilized in conjunction with ROVs for the oil and natural gas, renewables, telecommunications and defense markets. We manufacture Dynacon® branded ROV launch and recovery systems, linear cable engines, Sub-Atlantic® branded ROV thrusters, and a wide range of hydraulic power units and valve packs. We design and manufacture these ROV components for incorporation into our own vehicles as well as for sale to other ROV manufacturers. We also provide a broad suite of subsea tooling and technical services.
COMPLETIONS SEGMENT
Our Completions segment designs, manufactures and supplies products and provides related services to the coiled tubing, well stimulation and intervention markets. The products and related services consist primarily of: (i) capital and consumable products sold to the pressure pumping, hydraulic fracturing and flowback services markets, including hydraulic fracturing pumps, cooling systems, high-pressure flexible hoses and flow iron as well as wireline cable and pressure control equipment used in the well completion and intervention service markets; and (ii) coiled tubing strings and coiled line pipe and related services.
Demand for our Stimulation & Intervention and Coiled Tubing product lines is impacted by the level of shale or tight sand basin hydraulic fracturing activity and the level of workover and intervention activity.
Stimulation and Intervention. We provide a broad range of high pressure pumps and flow equipment used by pressure pumping companies during stimulation, intervention (principally plug and perforation activity) and flowback processes. We sell power end assemblies, industrial heat exchanger and cooling systems, manifolds and manifold trailers, high-pressure flexible hoses and flow iron. Frequent refurbishment and recertification of flow equipment is critical to ensuring the reliable and safe operation of a pressure pumping companys fleet. We perform these services and position inventory in strategic locations in North America.
We also manufacture pressure control products that are used for well intervention operations that are sold domestically and internationally to oilfield service companies and equipment rental companies. Products we supply include blowout preventers for coiled tubing and wireline units and our Hydraulic Latch Assembly, which is used to facilitate efficient zipper fracturing operations. We also manufacture electro-mechanical wireline cables as well as innovative EnviroLite branded (greaseless) cables. We also conduct aftermarket refurbishment and recertification services for pressure control equipment.
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Our primary customers in the Stimulation and Intervention product line are pressure pumping, wireline and flowback service companies. In addition, we sell directly to pressure pumping unit original equipment manufacturers.
Coiled Tubing. We manufacture Global Tubing® branded coiled tubing strings, including DURACOIL (quench and temper), and coiled line pipe, and provide related services. Coiled tubing strings are consumable components utilized to perform well completion and intervention activities. Our coiled line pipe offering serves as an alternative to conventional line pipe and composite flexibles in onshore and offshore applications. More recently, our coiled line pipe offering has been utilized by a customer for a carbon capture project to transport carbon for injection into underground storage.
The product line’s primary customers are domestic and international service companies that provide coiled tubing services and oil and gas operators.
PRODUCTION SEGMENT
Our Production segment designs, manufactures and supplies products and provides related equipment and services for production and infrastructure markets. The products and related services consist primarily of: (i) engineered process systems, production equipment, as well as specialty separation equipment; and (ii) a wide range of industrial valves focused on serving oil and natural gas customers as well as power generation, renewable energy and other general industrial applications.
The segment’s primary market driver is the level of spending associated with new producing wells as well as spending on midstream and downstream projects. In addition, demand for our Valve Solutions products is affected by activity levels in the power generation, process, petrochemical and mining industries.
Production Equipment. Our Production Equipment product line provides engineered process systems for capital equipment used at the wellsite and for production processing in the U.S. Once a well has been drilled, completed and brought on stream, we provide the well operator with process equipment necessary to make the oil or natural gas ready for transmission. We engineer, fabricate and install separators, packaged production systems and pressure vessels, skidded vessels with gas measurement, modular process plants, header and manifold skids, process and flow control equipment and separators to help clean and process oil or natural gas as it travels from the wellhead and along the transmission line to the refinery. Our customers are principally U.S. oil and natural gas operators or producers.
We also design and provide process oil treatment equipment, including EDGE® and NU-STATIC® branded desalters and dehydrator technologies, used in refineries and other process applications worldwide. We have a team of highly trained technicians and field service engineers for repair and installation, and we supply a broad range of replacement parts for our equipment and other manufacturers. This equipment removes sand, water and suspended solids from hydrocarbons prior to their transmission or refining.
Valve Solutions. We provide a wide range of industrial valves that principally serve the upstream, midstream and downstream markets of the oil and natural gas industry. Our valves also serve general industrial, power generation and process industry customers as well as the mining industry. In addition, our Canadian operations provide significant exposure to heavy oil projects. We provide ball, gate, globe, check and butterfly valves across a range of sizes and applications.
We market our valves to our customers and end users through our recognized brands: PBV®, DSI® and Accuseal®. Much of our production is sold through distribution supply companies, with our marketing efforts targeting end users for pull through of our valve products.
Our supply chain systems enable us to design and sell high-quality engineered valves, as well as provide standardized products, while maintaining competitive pricing and minimizing capital requirements. We utilize our international manufacturing partners to produce completed products and components for the majority of our valve products.
Depending on the product, our valves are manufactured to conform to the standards of one or more of the API, American National Standards Institute, American Bureau of Shipping, and International Organization for Standardization and/or other relevant standards governing the design and manufacture of industrial valves.
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Business history
Forum was incorporated in 2005 and formed through a series of acquisitions. In August 2010, Forum Oilfield Technologies, Inc. was renamed Forum Energy Technologies, Inc., when four other companies were merged into Forum. On April 17, 2012, we completed our initial public offering.
Backlog
As we provide a mix of consumable products, capital goods, and repair parts and services, the majority of orders and commitments included in our backlog as of December 31, 2021 are scheduled to be delivered within six months. Our backlog was approximately $196 million at December 31, 2021 and approximately $114 million at December 31, 2020. Substantially all of the projects currently in our backlog are subject to change and our customers may seek to terminate these orders. However, customers are generally required to pay us for work performed as well as other costs and fees as a result of such changes or termination. It is difficult to predict how much of our current backlog may be delayed or terminated, or subject to changes, as well as our ability to collect termination or change fees.
Our consumable and repair products are predominantly off-the-shelf items requiring short lead-times, generally less than six months, and our related refurbishment or other services are also not contracted with significant lead time. The composition of our backlog is reflective of our mix of capital equipment, consumable products, aftermarket and other related items. Our bookings, which consist of written orders or commitments for our products or related services, during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were approximately $632.3 and $473 million, respectively.
Customers
No customer represented more than 10% of consolidated revenue in any of the last three years.
Seasonality
Our business is not significantly impacted by seasonality. However, in the years ended December 31, 2019 through 2021, we did experience a decreased level of demand for our products in the fourth quarter. In addition, given the geographic proximity of a number of our facilities to the Gulf Coast, we are subject to business interruptions caused by hurricanes and tropical storms. Furthermore, a small portion of the revenue we generate from select Canadian operations often benefits from higher first quarter activity levels, as operators take advantage of the winter freeze to gain access to remote drilling and production areas.
Competition
The markets in which we operate are highly competitive. We compete with a number of companies of varying sizes. There are several large national and multinational companies that have longer operating histories, greater financial, technical and other resources and greater name recognition. In addition, we have several smaller competitors who compete with us on a regional or local basis. These competitors are often times very quick to respond to new or emerging technologies and services, and changes in customer requirements. The principal competitive factors in our markets are product quality and performance, price, breadth of product offering, availability of products and services, performance, distribution capabilities, technical expertise, responsiveness to customer needs, reputation for service and intellectual property rights. We believe our products and services in each segment are comparable in price, quality, performance and dependability with our competitors’ offerings. We seek to differentiate ourselves from our competitors by providing a rapid response to the needs of our customers, expert knowledge, a high level of customer service, and innovative product development initiatives. Some of our competitors expend greater amounts of money than us on formal research and engineering efforts. We believe, however, that our product development efforts are enhanced by the investment of management time that we make to improve our customer service and to work with our customers on their specific product needs and challenges.
Although we have no single competitor across all of our product lines, the companies we compete with across the greatest number of our product lines include National Oilwell Varco, Inc., Cameron International Corporation (a subsidiary of Schlumberger), TechnipFMC plc, Tenaris S.A., and Caterpillar, Inc.
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Patents, trademarks and other intellectual property
We currently hold multiple U.S. and international patents and trademarks, have a number of pending patent and trademark applications and have developed a significant amount of trade secrets or other know how in the areas where we compete. Although our patents, trademarks, licenses, trade secrets and know how are material to us in the aggregate, we do not regard any single piece of intellectual property to be material to our business as a whole.
Raw materials
We acquire component parts, products and raw materials from suppliers, including foundries, forge shops, and original equipment manufacturers. The prices we pay for our raw materials may be affected by, among other things, energy, steel and other commodity prices, inflationary pressures, tariffs and duties on imported materials and foreign currency exchange rates. Certain of our component parts, products or raw materials, such as bearings, are only available from a limited number of suppliers. Please see “Risk factors—Risks related to our business—We rely on relationships with key suppliers to operate and maintain our business.”
Timely receipt of raw materials is critical to our business. In 2021, we were negatively impacted by various transportation and other supply chain constraints, which caused manufacturing delays for some of our products. In the future, we may not be able to continue purchasing raw materials on a timely basis or at acceptable prices. We generally try to purchase raw materials from multiple suppliers so that we are not dependent on any one supplier, but this is not always possible.
Working Capital
An important consideration for many of our customers in selecting a vendor is timely availability of the product. Customers may pay a premium for earlier or immediate availability because of the cost of delays in critical operations. We stock our consumable products in regional warehouses or on consignment around the world so that these products are available for our customers when needed. This availability is especially critical for certain consumable products, causing us to carry substantial inventories for these products. For critical capital items in which demand is expected to be strong, we often build certain items before we have a firm order. Our having such goods available on short notice can be of great value to our customers. We also stock raw materials and components in order to be in a position to build products in response to market demand.
We typically offer our customers standard payment terms of 30 days, although during downturns in activity, customers often take 65 days or more to settle accounts. For sales into certain countries or for select customers, we might require payment upfront or credit support through a letter of credit. For longer term projects, we typically require progress payments as important milestones are reached. On average, we collect our receivables in about 60 days from shipment resulting in a substantial investment in accounts receivable. Likewise, standard terms with our vendors are 90 days. For critical items sourced from significant vendors, we have settled accounts more quickly, sometimes in exchange for early payment discounts.
Governmental regulation
Our operations are subject to numerous stringent and complex laws and regulations governing the discharge of materials into the environment, health and safety aspects of our operations, or otherwise relating to human health and environmental protection. In addition to environmental and worker safety regulations, we are subject to regulation by numerous other governmental regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Department of Labor and other state, local and international bodies regulating worker rights and labor conditions. In addition, we are subject to certain requirements to contribute to retirement funds or other benefit plans and laws in some jurisdictions in which we operate restrict our ability to dismiss employees. Failure to comply with these laws or regulations or to obtain or comply with permits may result in the assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, imposition of remedial or corrective action requirements, and the imposition of injunctions to prohibit certain activities or force future compliance.
The trend in environmental regulation has been to impose increasingly stringent restrictions and limitations on activities that may impact the environment, and thus, any changes in environmental laws and regulations or in enforcement policies that result in more stringent and costly waste handling, storage, transport, disposal, or remediation requirements could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial position. Moreover, accidental releases or spills of regulated substances may occur in the course of our operations, and if so, we may incur significant costs and liabilities as a result of such releases or spills, including any third party claims for damage to property, natural resources or persons.
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The following is a summary of the more significant existing environmental, health and safety laws and regulations to which our business operations are subject and for which compliance may have a material adverse impact on our capital expenditures, results of operations or financial position.
Hazardous substances and waste
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (the “RCRA”) and comparable state statutes, regulate the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, disposal and cleanup of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. Under the auspices of the Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”), the individual states administer some or all of the provisions of the RCRA, sometimes in conjunction with their own, more stringent requirements. We are required to manage the transportation, storage and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes in compliance with the RCRA.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (the “CERCLA”), also known as the Superfund law, imposes joint and several liability, without regard to fault or legality of conduct, on classes of persons who are considered to be responsible for the release of a hazardous substance into the environment. These persons include the owner or operator of the site where the release occurred, and anyone who disposed or arranged for the disposal of a hazardous substance released at the site. We currently own, lease, or operate numerous properties that have been used for manufacturing and other operations for many years. We also contract with waste removal services and landfills. These properties and the substances disposed or released on them may be subject to the CERCLA, RCRA and analogous state laws. Under such laws, we could be required to remove previously disposed substances and wastes, remediate contaminated property, or perform remedial operations to prevent future contamination. In addition, it is not uncommon for neighboring landowners and other third-parties to file claims for personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by hazardous substances released into the environment.
Hydraulic fracturing
A significant percentage of our customers’ oil and natural gas production is being developed from unconventional sources, such as hydrocarbon shales. These formations require hydraulic fracturing completion processes to release the oil or natural gas from the rock so that it can flow through the formations. Hydraulic fracturing involves the injection of water, sand and chemicals under pressure into the formation to stimulate production. A number of federal agencies, including the EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy, are analyzing, or have been requested to review, a variety of environmental issues associated with shale development, including hydraulic fracturing. Moreover, various political groups and officials are requesting or have discussed implementing a ban on hydraulic fracturing, or oil & gas extraction generally, on federal lands. For more information, please read “Risk Factors-Potential legislation or regulations restricting the use of hydraulic fracturing could reduce demand for our products.”
Operating risk and insurance
We maintain insurance coverage of types and amounts that we believe to be customary and reasonable for companies of our size and with similar operations. In accordance with industry practice, however, we do not maintain insurance coverage against all of the operating risks to which our business is exposed. Therefore, there is a risk our insurance program may not be sufficient to cover any particular loss or all losses. Currently, our insurance program includes coverage for, among other things, general liability, umbrella liability, sudden and accidental pollution, personal property, vehicles, workers’ compensation, and employer’s liability coverage.
Employees
As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 1,400 employees. Of our total employees, approximately 1,000 were in the U.S., 150 were in the United Kingdom, 100 were in Germany, 100 were in Canada and 50 were in other locations. We are not a party to any collective bargaining agreements, other than in our Hamburg, Germany facility. We consider our relations with our employees to be satisfactory.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
The following summarizes the principal factors that make an investment in our company speculative or risky, all of which are more fully described in the Risk Factors section below. This summary should be read in conjunction with the Risk Factors section and should not be relied upon as an exhaustive summary of the material risks facing our business.
Risks Related to our Business and Operations:
The success of our business largely depends on activity levels in the oil and natural gas industry, which can be affected by the amount and volatility of oil and natural gas prices.
The markets in which we operate are highly competitive, including some companies that hold substantial market share and have substantially greater resources than we do, as well as a number of regional or local competitors for certain of our product lines. We may not be able to compete successfully in this environment.
Given the uncertainty related to long-term commodity prices and associated customer demand, we may hold excess or obsolete inventory, and as a result, may experience a reduction in gross margins and financial results.
We may not realize revenue on our current backlog due to customer order reductions, cancellations or acceptance delays, which may negatively impact our financial results.
• The COVID-19 pandemic has and may continue to adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The industry in which we operate is undergoing continuing consolidation and seeking opportunities to participate in the energy transition, which may impact our results of operations.
A greater focus on budgetary discipline and technological advances have caused a decline in customer spending that may remain at a low level despite an increase in commodity prices.
• We may be unable to employ a sufficient number of skilled and qualified workers.
• We rely on relationships with key suppliers to operate and maintain our business.
Our business depends upon our ability to obtain key raw materials and specialized equipment from suppliers. Increased costs of raw materials and other components, and inflationary pressure, may result in increased operating expenses.
We may not be able to satisfy technical requirements, testing requirements, code requirements or other specifications under contracts and contract tenders.
A failure or breach of our information technology infrastructure, including as a result of cyber attacks or failures of data protection measures, could adversely impact our business and results of operations and expose us to potential liabilities.
• Our success depends on our ability to implement new technologies and services more efficiently and quickly than our competitors.
Our success will be affected by the use and protection of our proprietary technology. Due to the limitations of our intellectual property rights, our ability to exclude others from the use of our proprietary technology may be reduced. Furthermore, we may be adversely affected by disputes regarding intellectual property rights.
• We may incur liabilities, fines, penalties or additional costs, or we may be unable to sell to certain customers if we do not maintain safe operations.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud.
• Facility consolidations or expansions may subject us to risks of operating inefficiencies, construction delays and cost overruns.
• Our acquisitions and dispositions may not result in anticipated benefits and may present risks not originally contemplated, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated results of operations and consolidated financial condition.
• A natural disaster, catastrophe or other event could result in severe property damage, which could curtail our operations.
Legal and Regulatory Risks:
Our operations and our customers’ operations are subject to a variety of governmental laws and regulations that affect our and our customers’ costs, prohibit or curtail our customers’ operations in certain areas, limit the demand for our products and services or restrict our operations.
Potential legislation or regulations restricting the use of hydraulic fracturing could reduce demand for our products.
Our financial results could be adversely impacted by changes in regulation of oil and natural gas exploration and development activity in response to significant environmental incidents or climate change actions.
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Our operations are subject to environmental and operational safety laws and regulations that may expose us to significant costs and liabilities.
Tariffs imposed by the U.S. government could have a further severe adverse effect on our results of operations.
We are subject to litigation risks that may not be covered by insurance.
The number and cost of our current and future asbestos claims could be substantially higher than we have estimated and the timing of payment of claims could be sooner than we have estimated.
Our products are used in operations that are subject to potential hazards inherent in the oil and natural gas industry and, as a result, we are exposed to potential liabilities that could affect our financial condition and reputation.
Climate change legislation or regulations restricting emissions of greenhouse gases and related divestment and other efforts could increase our operating costs or reduce demand for our products.

Risks Related to our International Operations
Our business operations worldwide are subject to a number of U.S. federal laws and regulations, including restrictions imposed by the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act as well as trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the Commerce Department, as well as similar laws in non-U.S. jurisdictions that govern our operations by virtue of our presence or activities there.
Our exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations may result in fluctuations in our cash flows and could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Risks Related to our Common Stock, Indebtedness and Financial Condition:
Our common stock price has been volatile, and we expect it to continue to remain volatile in the future.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness. Our leverage and debt service obligations restrict our operations and make us more vulnerable to adverse economic conditions.
The indenture governing our 2025 Notes and our Credit Facility contain operating and financial restrictions that restrict our business and financing activities.
Our ability to access the capital and credit markets to raise capital on favorable terms is limited by our debt level, industry conditions and credit rating.
We have incurred impairment charges and we may incur additional impairment charges in the future.
Provisions in our organizational documents and under Delaware law could delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock.
L.E. Simmons & Associates (“LESA”), through SCF Partners (“SCF”), may significantly influence the outcome of stockholder voting and may exercise this voting power in a manner adverse to our other stockholders.
We have renounced any interest in specified business opportunities.

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Risks Related to our Business and Operations:
The success of our business largely depends on activity levels in the oil and natural gas industry, which can be affected by the amount and volatility of oil and natural gas prices.
We have experienced, and will continue to experience, fluctuations in revenues and operating results due to economic and business cycles. The willingness of oil and natural gas operators to make capital expenditures to explore for and produce oil and natural gas, the need of oilfield services companies to replenish consumable parts and the willingness of these customers to invest in capital equipment depends largely upon prevailing industry conditions that are influenced by numerous factors over which we have no control. Such factors include:
supply of and demand for oil and natural gas;
prices, and expectations about future prices, of oil and natural gas;
ability or willingness of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) and other major producers to set and maintain production limits;
cost of exploring for, developing, producing and delivering oil and natural gas;
levels of drilling and completions activity;
expected decline in rates of current and future production, or faster than anticipated declines in production;
discovery rates of new oil and natural gas reserves;
the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health measures implemented by governments worldwide;
ability of our customers to access new markets or areas of production or to continue to access current markets, including as a result of trade restrictions;
weather conditions, including hurricanes and tornadoes, that can affect oil and natural gas operations;
natural disasters, catastrophes or other events resulting in severe property damage;
more stringent environmental regulations;
prohibitions, moratoriums or similar limitations on drilling or hydraulic fracturing activity resulting in a cessation or disruption of operations;
domestic and worldwide economic conditions;
financial stability of our customers and other industry participants;
political instability in oil and natural gas producing countries;
increased pressures to invest in sustainable energy sources, shareholder activism or activities by non-governmental organizations to restrict the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas;
conservation measures and technological advances affecting energy consumption;
price and availability of alternative energy resources and fuels;
uncertainty in capital and commodities markets, and the ability of oil and natural gas companies to raise equity capital and debt financing;
interest rates, the cost of capital and inflationary pressures; and
merger and divestiture activity among oil and natural gas producers, drilling contractors and oilfield service companies.
The oil and natural gas industry has historically experienced periodic reductions in the overall level of exploration and development activities in connection with declines in commodity prices. As a result, there are periodic reductions in the demand for our products and services, downward pressure on the prices that we charge and ultimately an adverse impact on our business. During the year ended December 31, 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted demand for oil and natural gas, which has contributed to further price volatility. Although, as of early 2022, oil and gas prices and demand have recovered from the historic lows seen in the first half of 2020, it is uncertain whether prices will maintain current levels, decline or increase. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that the demand or pricing for oil and natural gas will follow historic patterns, including as a result of increased availability of alternative energy sources. Declines in oil and natural gas prices, decreased levels of exploration,
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development, and production activity, use of alternative sources of energy, and the willingness of customers to invest in their equipment relative to historical norms may negatively affect:
revenues, cash flows, and profitability;
the ability to maintain or increase borrowing capacity;
the ability to obtain additional capital to finance our business and the cost of that capital;
the ability to collect outstanding amounts from our customers; and
the ability to attract and retain skilled personnel to maintain our business or that will be needed in the event of an upturn in the demand for our products.
The markets in which we operate are highly competitive, including some companies that hold substantial market share and have substantially greater resources than we do, as well as a number of regional or local competitors for certain of our product lines. We may not be able to compete successfully in this environment.
The markets in which we operate are highly competitive and our products and services are subject to competition from significantly larger businesses. We have several competitors that are large national and multinational companies that have longer operating histories, and greater financial, technical and other resources than we do. In addition, we compete with many small companies on a regional or local basis. Our competitors may be able to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and services and changes in customer requirements. In addition, several of our competitors provide a much broader array of services, and have a stronger presence in more geographic markets and, as such, may be better positioned to withstand an extended downturn. Our larger competitors are able to use their size and purchasing power to seek economies of scale and pricing concessions. Furthermore, some of our customers are our competitors and have in the past ceased buying from us, and may do the same in the future. We also have competitors outside of the U.S. with lower structural costs due to labor and raw material cost in and around their manufacturing centers, and prices based on foreign currencies. Accordingly, currency fluctuations may cause U.S. dollar-priced products to be less competitive than our competitors’ products that are priced in other currencies. Moreover, our competitors may utilize available capacity during a period of depressed energy prices to gain market share.
New competitors have also entered the markets in which we compete. We consider product quality, price, breadth of product offering, availability of products and services, performance, distribution capabilities, technical expertise, responsiveness to customer needs, reputation for service and intellectual property rights to be the primary competitive factors. Competitors may be able to offer more attractive pricing, duplicate strategies, or develop enhancements to products that offer performance features that are superior to our products. In addition, we may not be able to retain key employees of entities that we acquire in the future and those employees may choose to compete against us following a contractually agreed period of non-competition that is permitted under the law. Competitive pressures, including those described above, and other factors could adversely affect our competitive position, resulting in a loss of market share or decreases in prices. For more information about our competitors, please read “Business—Competition.”
Given the uncertainty related to long-term commodity prices and associated customer demand, we may hold excess or obsolete inventory, and as a result, may experience a reduction in gross margins and financial results.
We cannot accurately predict what or how many products our customers will need in the future. Orders are placed with our suppliers based on forecasts of customer demand and, in some instances, we may establish buffer inventories to accommodate anticipated demand. At certain times, we have built capital equipment before receiving customer orders. Our forecasts of customer demand are based on multiple assumptions, which have introduced errors into the estimates. These forecasts were particularly challenging during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, including as a result of uncertain demand levels and inability by our customers to receive finished goods. In addition, many of our suppliers, such as those for certain of our standardized valves, require a longer lead time to provide products than our customers demand for delivery of our finished products. If we underestimate customer demand or if insufficient manufacturing capacity is available, we would miss revenue opportunities and potentially lose market share and damage our customer relationships. Conversely, if we overestimate customer demand, we would allocate resources to the purchase of material or manufactured products that we are not be able to sell when we expect to, if at all. As a result, we would hold excess or obsolete inventory, which would reduce gross margin and adversely affect financial results upon writing down the value of inventory. In addition, any future significant cancellations or deferrals of product orders or the return of previously sold products could materially and adversely affect profit margins, increase product obsolescence and restrict our ability to fund our operations.
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We may not realize revenue on our current backlog due to customer order reductions, cancellations or acceptance delays, which may negatively impact our financial results.
Uncertainty regarding demand for our customers’ services has resulted in order reductions, cancellations and acceptance delays, and we may experience more of these in the future. We may be unable to collect revenue for all of the orders reflected in our backlog, or we may be unable to collect cancellation penalties, to the extent we have the right to impose them, or the revenues may be pushed into future periods. In addition, customers who are more highly leveraged or otherwise unable to pay their creditors in the ordinary course of business may become insolvent or be unable to operate as a going concern. We may be unable to collect amounts due or damages we are awarded from these customers, and our efforts to collect such amounts may damage our customer relationships. Our results of operations and overall financial condition may be negatively impacted by a reduction in revenue as a result of these circumstances.
The COVID-19 pandemic has and may continue to adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic and related responses by governmental authorities and changes to consumer behavior have significantly impacted global economic activity. In addition to impacts on oil and natural gas markets (as described in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Market Conditions”), the COVID-19 pandemic caused further declines in the global rig count and North America completions activities that impacted our business and operations. These events have compounded the impact from many of the risks described in this Risk Factors section, including those relating to our customers’ capital spending and trends in oil and natural gas prices. Although demand for our products and services has partially recovered from 2020 lows, demand may remain depressed as a result of our customers’ reduction in capital budgets in response to commodity price volatility, ongoing macroeconomic instability, supply chain disruption and other factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, we are facing, and expect to continue to face, logistical challenges resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, including operational and supply chain disruptions, material and labor shortages, travel restrictions and an inability to commute to certain facilities and job sites, as we provide services and products to our customers.
Given the dynamic nature of these events, we cannot reasonably estimate the period of time that the COVID-19 pandemic and related market conditions will persist, the full extent of the impact they will have on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows or the pace or extent of any subsequent recovery. The ultimate extent of the impact of the pandemic will depend largely on future developments, including the duration and spread of the outbreak, the success of vaccination and booster programs and the related impact on overall economic activity, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted with certainty at this time. For more information, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Market Conditions.”
The industry in which we operate is undergoing continuing consolidation and seeking opportunities to participate in the energy transition, which may impact our results of operations.
Some of our customers have consolidated and are seeking to achieve economies of scale and pricing concessions. In addition, they are making investments in non-traditional oil and gas markets as part of the energy transition. As a result, we may be unable to supply our traditional oil and gas products to these customers if we do not develop new technology that meets their changing needs. In addition, the consolidation of customers and focus on non-traditional energy investments could result in reduced spending by such companies or decreased demand for our existing products and services. Therefore, to counteract these pressures, any reduced spending or decreased demand for traditional energy products will need to be offset at the same or greater pace by sales to other customers or increased sales of renewable energy technologies that we develop. If we are not successful in offsetting such sales, there could be a significant negative impact on our results of operations or financial condition. We are unable to predict what effect consolidations and the energy transition in the industry may have on prices, spending by customers, selling strategies, competitive position, customer retention or our ability to negotiate favorable agreements with customers.
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A greater focus on budgetary discipline and technological advances have caused a decline in customer spending that may remain at a low level despite an increase in commodity prices.
A portion of our business is driven by our customers’ spending on capital equipment such as drilling rigs. Our customers and their investors have adopted business strategies placing significant emphasis on capital discipline that has limited the level of their spending. In addition, new techniques and technological advances have reduced the number of days required to drill wells. The number of days required for a drilling rig to be on a site to drill a well has in many areas been reduced by at least half over the last several years. Given these factors, we cannot provide any assurance that our capital equipment sales will increase if there is an increase in commodity prices.
We may be unable to employ a sufficient number of skilled and qualified workers.
The delivery of our products and services requires personnel with specialized skills and experience. Our ability to be productive and profitable depends upon our ability to employ and retain skilled workers. During periods of low activity in our industry, we have reduced the size of our labor force to match declining revenue levels, and other employees have chosen to leave in order to find more stable employment. This causes us to lose skilled personnel, the absence of which could cause us to incur quality, efficiency and deliverability issues in our operations, or delay our response to an upturn in the market. During periods of increasing activity in our industry, our ability to expand our operations depends in part on our ability to increase the size of our skilled labor force. In addition, during those periods, the demand for skilled workers is high, the supply is limited and the cost to attract and retain qualified personnel increases, especially for skilled workers. For example, we have recently experienced shortages of engineers, mechanical assemblers, machinists and welders, which in some instances slowed the productivity of certain of our operations. Furthermore, a significant increase in the wages paid by competing employers could result in a reduction of our skilled labor force, increases in the wage rates that we must pay, or both. We are also exposed to the impact of labor cost increases resulting from other factors such as high employment levels, increased wages offered by employers in other industries, and government regulations. If any of these events were to occur, our ability to respond quickly to customer demands may be inhibited and our growth potential could be impaired.
We rely on relationships with key suppliers to operate and maintain our business.
Certain of our product lines depend on a limited number of third party suppliers. In some cases, the suppliers own the intellectual property rights to the products we sell, or possess the technology or specialized tooling required to manufacture them. As a result of this concentration in part of our supply chain, our business and operations may be negatively affected if our key suppliers were to experience significant disruptions affecting the price, quality, availability or timely delivery of their products, such as from the COVID-19 pandemic, or if they were to decide to terminate their relationships with us. For example, we have a limited number of suppliers for our bearings product lines and certain of our valve product lines. The limited number of these suppliers can restrict the quantity and timeliness of customer deliveries. Recently, some of our suppliers have imposed more stringent payment terms and conditions on us based on our perceived risk as a counterparty. The partial or complete loss of any one of our key suppliers, a significant adverse change in the relationship with any of these suppliers, through consolidation or otherwise, would limit our ability to manufacture and sell certain of our products.
Our business depends upon our ability to obtain key raw materials and specialized equipment from suppliers. Increased costs of raw materials and other components, and inflationary pressure, may result in increased operating expenses.
Should our suppliers be unable to provide the necessary raw materials or finished products or otherwise fail to deliver such materials and products timely and in the quantities required, resulting delays in the provision of products or services to customers could have a material adverse effect on our business. In particular, because many of our products are manufactured out of steel, we are particularly susceptible to fluctuations in steel prices and tariffs. Our results of operations may be adversely affected by our inability to manage the rising costs and availability of raw materials and components used in our products. For example, our Coiled Tubing product line was unable to source a sufficient amount of steel during the third and fourth quarters of 2021 to satisfy customer orders on a timely basis. In addition to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related supply chain and operational disruptions, the availability and cost of necessary raw materials and finished products may be impacted by macroeconomic demand, various national, regional, local, economic and political factors, and inflationary pressures.
Some of our customer contracts require us to compensate customers if we do not meet specified delivery obligations. We rely on suppliers to provide required materials and in many instances these materials must meet certain specifications. Managing a geographically diverse supply base poses inherently significant logistical challenges. Furthermore, the ability of third party suppliers to deliver materials to our specifications may be affected by events beyond our control. As a result, there is a risk that we could experience diminished supplier performance
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resulting in longer than expected lead times and/or product quality issues. For example, in the past, we have experienced issues with the quality of certain forgings used to produce materials utilized in our products. As a result, we were required to seek alternative suppliers for those forgings, which resulted in increased costs and a disruption in our supply chain. We have also been required in certain circumstances to provide better economic terms to some of our suppliers in exchange for their agreement to increase their capacity to satisfy our supply needs. The occurrence of any of the foregoing factors would have a negative impact on our ability to deliver products to customers within committed time frames.
We may not be able to satisfy technical requirements, testing requirements, code requirements or other specifications under contracts and contract tenders.
Many of our products are used in harsh environments and severe service applications. Our contracts with customers and customer requests for bids often set forth detailed specifications or technical requirements (including that they meet certain industrial code requirements, such as API, ASME or similar codes, or that our processes and facilities maintain ISO or similar certifications) for our products and services, which may also include extensive testing requirements. We anticipate that such code testing requirements will become more common in our contracts. We cannot assure that our products or facilities will be able to satisfy the specifications or requirements, or that we will be able to perform the full-scale testing necessary to prove that the product specifications are satisfied in future contract bids or under existing contracts, or that the costs of modifications to our products or facilities to satisfy the specifications and testing will not adversely affect our results of operations. If our products or facilities are unable to satisfy such requirements, or we are unable to perform or satisfy any required full-scale testing, we may suffer reputational harm and our customers may cancel their contracts and/or seek new suppliers, and our business, results of operations or financial position may be adversely affected.
A failure or breach of our information technology infrastructure, including as a result of cyber attacks or failures of data protection measures, could adversely impact our business and results of operations and expose us to potential liabilities.
The efficient operation of our business is dependent on our information technology (“IT”) systems. Accordingly, we rely upon the capacity, reliability and security of our IT hardware and software infrastructure and our ability to expand and update this infrastructure in response to our changing needs, including remote connectivity. Despite our implementation of security measures, our IT systems are vulnerable to computer viruses, natural disasters, incursions by intruders or hackers, failures in hardware or software, power fluctuations, cyber terrorists and other similar disruptions. In certain instances, our IT systems have failed to perform as anticipated, resulting in disruptions in operations and other adverse consequences. Should our IT systems materially fail in the future, it may result in numerous other adverse consequences, including reduced effectiveness and efficiency of our operations, inappropriate disclosure or loss of confidential or sensitive information, increased overhead costs, and loss of intellectual property, which could lead to liability to third parties or otherwise and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Our insurance may not protect us against such occurrences or our insurers may refuse to make payment. In addition, we may be required to incur significant costs to prevent damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future.
In addition, recent laws and regulations governing data privacy and the unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation and laws enacted in certain U.S. jurisdictions, pose increasingly complex compliance challenges and potentially elevate our costs. Any failure by us to comply with these laws and regulations, including as a result of a security or privacy breach, could result in significant penalties and liabilities for us. Additionally, if we acquire a company that has violated or is not in compliance with applicable data protection laws, we may incur significant liabilities and penalties as a result.
Our success depends on our ability to implement new technologies and services more efficiently and quickly than our competitors.
Our success depends on our ability to develop and implement new product designs and improvements that meet our customer’s needs in a manner equal to or more effective than those offered by our competitors. If we are not able to continue to provide new and innovative services and technologies in a manner that allows us to meet evolving industry requirements, including the focus on renewable energy opportunities, at prices acceptable to our customers, our financial results would be negatively affected. In addition, some of our competitors are large national and multinational companies that we believe are able to devote greater financial, technical, manufacturing and marketing resources to research and develop more or better systems, services and technologies than we are able to do. Moreover, as a result of the currently depressed levels of customer activity, we may be unable to allocate sufficient amounts of capital to research and new product development activities, which may limit our ability to compete in the market and generate revenue.
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Our success will be affected by the use and protection of our proprietary technology. Due to the limitations of our intellectual property rights, our ability to exclude others from the use of our proprietary technology may be reduced. Furthermore, we may be adversely affected by disputes regarding intellectual property rights.
Our success will be affected by our development and implementation of new product designs and improvements and by our ability to protect and maintain intellectual property assets related to these developments. Although in many cases our products are not protected by any registered intellectual property rights, in some cases we rely on a combination of patents and trade secret laws to establish and protect this proprietary technology.
We currently hold multiple U.S. and international patents and have several pending patent applications associated with our products and processes. Some work is conducted in international waters and, therefore, does not fall within the scope of any country’s patent jurisdiction. As a result, we would be limited in the degree to which we can enforce our patents against infringement occurring in international waters and other “non-covered” territories. Also, we do not have patents in every jurisdiction in which we conduct business and our patent portfolio will not protect all aspects of our business and may relate to obsolete or unusual methods, which would not prevent third parties from entering the same market.
From time to time, our competitors have infringed upon, misappropriated, circumvented, violated or challenged the validity or enforceability of our intellectual property. In the future, we may not be able to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights. Our failure or inability to protect our proprietary information or successfully oppose intellectual property challenges against us could materially and adversely affect our competitive position. Moreover, third parties from time to time may initiate litigation against us by asserting that the conduct of our business infringes, misappropriates or otherwise violates their intellectual property rights. For example, in 2017, one of our subsidiaries filed an action seeking a declaratory judgment action of non-infringement against Tenaris Coiled Tubes, LLC. Tenaris subsequently filed counterclaims against our subsidiary and us alleging infringement on certain of its patents. We may not prevail in any such legal proceedings, and our products and services may be found to infringe, impair, misappropriate, dilute or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of others. Any legal proceeding concerning intellectual property is likely to be protracted and costly and is inherently unpredictable, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, regardless of its outcome. Further, our intellectual property rights may not have the value expected and such value is expected to change over time as new products are designed and improved.
We may incur liabilities, fines, penalties or additional costs, or we may be unable to sell to certain customers if we do not maintain safe operations.
If we fail to comply with safety regulations or maintain an acceptable level of safety at our facilities, we may incur fines, penalties or other liabilities, or we may be held criminally liable. In addition, a portion of our work force is made up of newer employees who are less experienced and therefore more prone to injury. As a result, new employees require ongoing training and a higher degree of oversight. We incur additional costs to encourage training and ensure proper oversight of these shorter service employees. Moreover, we incur costs in connection with equipment upgrades, or other costs to facilitate our compliance with safety regulations. Failure to maintain safe operations or achieve certain safety performance metrics could disqualify us from doing business with certain customers, particularly major oil companies.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud.
Effective internal controls over financial processes and reporting are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports that effectively prevent fraud and operate successfully. Our efforts to maintain internal control systems have not been successful in the past. The existence of a material weakness in the future or a failure of our internal controls could affect our ability to obtain financing or increase the cost of any such financing. The identification of a material weakness in the future could also cause investors to lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements and could result in a decrease in the value of our common stock. In addition, the entities that we acquire in the future may not maintain effective systems of internal control or we may encounter difficulties integrating our system of internal controls with those of acquired entities. If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls and, as a result, fail to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud, our reputation and operating results would be harmed.
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Facility consolidations or expansions may subject us to risks of operating inefficiencies, construction delays and cost overruns.
We have consolidated and may continue to consolidate facilities to achieve operating efficiencies and reduce costs. These facility consolidations may be delayed and cause us to incur increased costs, product or service delivery delays, decreased responsiveness to customer needs, liabilities under terms and conditions of sale or other operational inefficiencies, or may not provide the benefits we anticipate. We may lose key personnel and operational knowledge that might lead to quality issues, delays in production or other competitive disadvantages.
In the future, we may grow our businesses through the construction of new facilities and expansions of our existing facilities. These projects, and any other capital asset construction projects that we may commence, are subject to similar risks of delay or cost overruns inherent in any construction project resulting from numerous factors, including the following:
difficulties or delays in obtaining land;
shortages of key equipment, materials or skilled labor;
unscheduled delays in the delivery of ordered materials and equipment;
unanticipated cost increases;
weather interferences; and
difficulties in obtaining necessary permits or in meeting permit conditions.
Our acquisitions and dispositions may not result in anticipated benefits and may present risks not originally contemplated, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated results of operations and consolidated financial condition.
We continually seek opportunities to maximize efficiency and value through various transactions, including purchases or sales of assets, businesses, investments, or joint venture interests. These transactions are intended to (but may not) result in the realization of savings, the creation of efficiencies, the offering of new products or services, the generation of cash or income, or the reduction of risk. Acquisition transactions may use cash on hand or be financed by additional borrowings or by the issuance of our common stock. These transactions may also affect our business, consolidated results of operations and consolidated financial condition. These transactions also involve risks, and we cannot ensure that:
any acquisitions we attempt will be completed on the terms announced, or at all;
any acquisitions would result in an increase in income or provide an adequate return of capital or other anticipated benefits;
any acquisitions would be successfully integrated into our operations and internal controls;
the due diligence conducted prior to an acquisition would uncover situations that could result in financial or legal exposure, including under the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), or that we will appropriately quantify the exposure from known risks;
any disposition would not result in decreased earnings, revenue, or cash flow;
use of cash for acquisitions would not adversely affect our cash available for capital expenditures and other uses; or
any dispositions, investments, or acquisitions, including integration efforts, would not divert management resources.
A natural disaster, catastrophe or other event could result in severe property damage, which could curtail our operations.
Adverse weather conditions, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, ice or snow may damage or destroy our facilities, interrupt or curtail our operations, or our customers’ operations, cause supply disruptions and result in a loss of revenue, which may or may not be insured. For example, certain of our facilities located in Oklahoma and Pennsylvania have experienced suspensions in operations due to tornado activity or extreme cold weather conditions.
Some of our operations involve risks of, among other things, property damage, which could curtail our operations. Disruptions in operations or damage to a manufacturing plant could reduce our ability to produce products and satisfy customer demand. In particular, we have offices and manufacturing facilities in Houston, Texas, and in
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various places throughout the U.S. Gulf Coast region. These offices and facilities are particularly susceptible to severe tropical storms and hurricanes, which may disrupt our operations. Damage to one or more of our manufacturing facilities by severe weather or any other disaster, accident, catastrophe or event, could significantly interrupt our operations. Similar interruptions could result from damage to production or other facilities that provide supplies or other raw materials to our plants or other stoppages arising from factors beyond our control. These interruptions might involve significant damage to property, among other things, and repairs might take a significant amount of time. For example, in the third quarter 2017, we were impacted by idled facilities and operations directly related to Hurricane Harvey’s widespread damage in Texas and Louisiana. As a result, our financial results were negatively impacted by foregone revenue and under-absorption of manufacturing costs, and, indirectly, due to supplier and logistical delays.
Legal and Regulatory Risks:
Our operations and our customers’ operations are subject to a variety of governmental laws and regulations that affect our and our customers’ costs, prohibit or curtail our customers’ operations in certain areas, limit the demand for our products and services or restrict our operations.
Our business and our customers’ businesses may be significantly affected by:
federal, state and local U.S. and non-U.S. laws and other regulations relating to oilfield operations, worker safety and protection of the environment;
changes in these laws and regulations;
the level of enforcement of these laws and regulations; and
interpretation of existing laws and regulations.
In addition, we depend on the demand for our products and services from the oil and natural gas industry. This demand is affected by changing taxes, price controls and other laws and regulations relating to the oil and natural gas industry in general. For example, the adoption of laws and regulations curtailing exploration and development drilling for oil and natural gas for economic or other policy reasons could adversely affect our operations by limiting demand for our products. In addition, some non-U.S. countries adopt regulations or practices that provide an advantage to local oil companies in bidding for oil leases, or require local companies to perform oilfield services currently supplied by international service companies. To the extent that such companies are not our customers, or we are unable to develop relationships with them, our business may suffer. We cannot determine the extent to which our future operations and earnings may be affected by new legislation, new regulations or changes in existing regulations.
Because of our non-U.S. operations and sales, we are also subject to changes in non-U.S. laws and regulations that encourage or require hiring of local contractors or require non-U.S. contractors to employ citizens of, or purchase supplies from, a particular jurisdiction. If we fail to comply with any applicable law or regulation, our business, results of operations or financial condition may be adversely affected.
Potential legislation or regulations restricting the use of hydraulic fracturing could reduce demand for our products.
Certain environmental advocacy groups and politicians have suggested that additional federal, state and local laws and regulations may be needed to more closely regulate the hydraulic fracturing process, and have made claims that hydraulic fracturing techniques are harmful to surface water and drinking water resources. Various governmental entities (within and outside the U.S.) are in the process of studying, restricting, regulating or preparing to regulate hydraulic fracturing, directly or indirectly.
The EPA has asserted federal authority over hydraulic fracturing using fluids that contain “diesel fuel” under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act (“SDWA”) Underground Injection Control Program and has issued permitting guidance for hydraulic fracturing operations involving the use of diesel fuel in fracturing fluids in those states where the EPA is the permitting authority.  Additionally, in March 2015, the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management (“BLM”) issued final rules, including new requirements relating to public disclosure, wellbore integrity and handling of flowback water, to regulate hydraulic fracturing on federal and Indian lands. These rules were rescinded by rule in December 2017; however, in January 2018, California and a coalition of environmental groups filed a lawsuit in the Northern District of California to challenge the BLM’s rescission of the rules. The Northern District of California upheld the rescission in 2020, but this decision was then appealed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. This litigation is ongoing and future implementation of the BLM rules is uncertain at this time
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In past sessions, Congress has considered, but not passed, the adoption of legislation to provide for federal regulation of hydraulic fracturing under the SDWA and to require disclosure of the chemicals used in the hydraulic fracturing process. Some states have adopted, and other states are considering adopting, legal requirements that could impose more stringent permitting, public disclosure or well construction requirements on hydraulic fracturing activities or impose bans or moratoria on these activities altogether. Local governments also may seek to adopt ordinances within their jurisdictions regulating the time, place and manner of drilling activities in general or hydraulic fracturing activities in particular, in some cases banning hydraulic fracturing entirely. For example, the Colorado state legislature passed a package of hydraulic fracturing regulations in April 2019. Under the new law, the state oil and natural gas agency must review well locations for environmental protection criteria. In addition, the legislation broadened the authority for local governments to further regulate or restrict hydraulic fracturing. In November 2019, the California governor’s office imposed new regulations on hydraulic fracturing, including a moratorium on all new hydraulic fracturing permits pending review by a panel of scientists. In February 2018, the Oklahoma Corporation Commission released a protocol that requires operators to suspend hydraulic fracturing well completion operations in response to certain levels of seismic activity.
If new or more stringent federal, state or local legal restrictions relating to the hydraulic fracturing process are adopted in areas where our oil and natural gas exploration and production customers operate, they could incur potentially significant added costs to comply with such requirements, experience delays or curtailment in the pursuit of exploration, development, and production activities, and perhaps even be precluded from drilling wells, some or all of which could adversely affect demand for our products and services from those customers.
Our financial results could be adversely impacted by changes in regulation of oil and natural gas exploration and development activity in response to significant environmental incidents or climate change actions.
Environmental incidents such as the Macondo well incident could result in drilling moratoria, and could result in increased federal, state, and international regulation of our and our customers’ operations that could negatively impact our earnings, prospects and the availability and cost of insurance coverage. Any additional regulation of the exploration and production industry as a whole could result in fewer companies being financially qualified to operate offshore or onshore in the U.S. or in non-U.S. jurisdictions, resulting in higher operating costs for our customers and reduced demand for our products and services.
In January 2021, President Biden signed an executive order that, among other things, instructed the Secretary of the Interior to pause new oil and natural gas leases on public lands or in offshore waters pending completion of a comprehensive review and reconsideration of federal oil and natural gas permitting and leasing practices. Following that executive order, the acting Secretary of the Interior issued an order imposing a 60 day pause on the issuance of new leases, permits and right-of-way grants for oil and gas drilling on federal lands, unless approved by senior officials at the Department of the Interior. In March 2021, prior to the expiration of the Secretary of the Interior’s order, President Biden announced that career staff at the Department of the Interior would resume processing oil and gas drilling permits. In June 2021, a federal judge for the U.S. District Court of the Western District of Louisiana issued a nationwide preliminary injunction against the pause of oil and natural gas leasing on public lands or in offshore waters while litigation challenging that aspect of the executive order is ongoing. The full impact of these federal actions remains unclear, and if other restrictions or prohibitions become effective in the future, they could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our operations are subject to environmental and operational safety laws and regulations that may expose us to significant costs and liabilities.
Our operations are subject to numerous stringent and complex laws and regulations governing the discharge of materials into the environment, health and safety aspects of our operations, or otherwise relating to human health and environmental protection. These laws and regulations may, among other things, regulate the management and disposal of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes; require acquisition of environmental permits related to our operations; restrict the types, quantities, and concentrations of various materials that can be released into the environment; limit or prohibit operational activities in certain ecologically sensitive and other protected areas; regulate specific health and safety criteria addressing worker protection; require compliance with operational and equipment standards; impose testing, reporting and record keeping requirements; and require remedial measures to mitigate pollution from former and ongoing operations. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations or to obtain or comply with permits may result in the inability to conduct certain operational activities, assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, imposition of remedial or corrective action requirements and the imposition of injunctions to prohibit certain activities or force future compliance. Certain environmental laws may impose joint and several liability, without regard to fault or legality of conduct, on classes of persons who are
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considered to be responsible for the release of a hazardous substance into the environment. In addition, these risks may be greater for us because the companies we acquire or have acquired may not have allocated sufficient resources and management focus to environmental compliance, potentially requiring rehabilitative efforts during the integration process or exposing us to liability before such rehabilitation occurs.
The trend in environmental regulation has been to impose increasingly stringent restrictions and limitations on activities that may impact the environment. The implementation of new laws and regulations could result in materially increased costs, stricter standards and enforcement, larger fines and liability and increased capital expenditures and operating costs, particularly for our customers.
Tariffs imposed by the U.S. government could have a further severe adverse effect on our results of operations.
The U.S. government imposed global tariffs on certain imported steel and aluminum products pursuant to Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as well as tariffs on imports of various Chinese product (including steel) pursuant to Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. In response, China and other countries have imposed retaliatory tariffs on a wide range of U.S. products, including those containing steel and aluminum. In addition, the U.S. government recently issued a preliminary determination pursuant to an anti-dumping duty order on certain hot-rolled steel products from Japan, in which it found imports of the subject merchandise were sold in the United States at prices below normal value during the August 2019 to July 2020 time period. As a result, the U.S. government has preliminarily calculated a dumping margin of 26.81% for imports from Japan of the subject steel products. At this time, we cannot predict whether this level of dumping margins will become final or the duty amount that may be imposed. Our efforts to mitigate the impact of tariffs on raw materials through the diversification of our supply chain, exemption requests and other measures may not be sufficiently successful. Furthermore, a prolonged imposition of tariffs on our goods could have a significant adverse effect on our results of operations.
We are subject to litigation risks that may not be covered by insurance.
In the ordinary course of business, we become the subject of claims, lawsuits and administrative proceedings seeking damages or other remedies concerning our commercial operations, products, employees and other matters, including occasional claims by individuals alleging exposure to hazardous materials as a result of our products or operations. Some of these claims relate to the activities of businesses that we have acquired, even though these activities may have occurred prior to our acquisition of such businesses. Our insurance does not cover all of our potential losses, and we are subject to various self-insured retentions and deductibles under our insurance. A judgment may be rendered against us in cases in which we could be uninsured or which exceed the amounts that we currently have reserved or anticipate incurring for such matters.
The number and cost of our current and future asbestos claims could be substantially higher than we have estimated and the timing of payment of claims could be sooner than we have estimated.
One of our subsidiaries has been and continues to be named as a defendant in asbestos related product liability actions. The actual amounts expended on asbestos-related claims in any year may be impacted by the number of claims filed, the nature of the allegations asserted in the claims, the jurisdictions in which claims are filed, and the number of settlements. As of December 31, 2021, our subsidiary has a net liability of $0.3 million for the estimated indemnity cost associated with the resolution of its current open claims and future claims anticipated to be filed during the next five years.
Due to a number of uncertainties, the actual costs of resolving these pending claims could be substantially higher than the current estimate. Among these are uncertainties as to the ultimate number and type of lawsuits filed, the amounts of claim costs, the impact of bankruptcies of other companies with asbestos suits or of our insurers, and potential legislative changes and uncertainties surrounding the litigation process from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and from case to case. In addition, future claims beyond the five-year forecast period are possible, but the accrual does not cover losses that may arise from such additional future claims. Therefore, any such future claims could result in a loss.
Significant costs are incurred in defending asbestos claims and these costs are recorded at the time incurred. Receipt of reimbursement from our insurers may be delayed for a variety of reasons. In particular, if our primary insurers claim that certain policy limits have been exhausted, we may be delayed in receiving reimbursement due to the transition from one set of insurers to another. Our excess insurers may also dispute the claims of exhaustion, or may rely on certain policy requirements to delay or deny claims. Furthermore, the various per occurrence and aggregate limits in different insurance policies may result in extended negotiations or the denial of reimbursement
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for particular claims. For more information on the cost sharing agreements related to this risk, refer to Note 13 Commitments and Contingencies.
Our products are used in operations that are subject to potential hazards inherent in the oil and natural gas industry and, as a result, we are exposed to potential liabilities that could affect our financial condition and reputation.
Our products are used in potentially hazardous completion, production and drilling applications in the oil and natural gas industry where an accident or a failure of a product can potentially have catastrophic consequences. Risks inherent to these applications, such as equipment malfunctions; failures; explosions; blowouts or uncontrollable flows of oil, natural gas or well fluids; and natural disasters on land or in deepwater or shallow-water environments, can cause personal injury; loss of life; suspension of operations; damage to formations; damage to facilities; business interruption and damage to or destruction of property, surface water and drinking water resources, equipment and the environment. These risks can be caused or contributed to by failure of, defects in or misuse of our products. In addition, we provide certain services that could cause, contribute to or be implicated in these events. If our products or services fail to meet specifications or are involved in accidents or failures, we could face warranty, contract or other litigation claims, which could expose us to substantial liability for personal injury, wrongful death, property damage, loss of oil and natural gas production, and pollution or other environmental damages. In addition, failure of our products to operate properly or to meet specifications may increase costs by requiring additional engineering resources and services, replacement of parts and equipment or monetary reimbursement to a customer. Our insurance policies may not be adequate to cover all liabilities. Further, insurance may not be generally available in the future or, if available, insurance premiums may make such insurance commercially unjustifiable. Moreover, even if we are successful in defending a claim, it could be time-consuming and costly to defend.
In addition, the frequency and severity of such incidents could affect operating costs, insurability and relationships with customers, employees and regulators. In particular, our customers may elect not to purchase our products or services if they view our safety record as unacceptable, which could cause us to lose customers and revenues. In addition, these risks may be greater for us because we may acquire companies that have not allocated significant resources and management focus to quality or safety, requiring rehabilitative efforts during the integration process. We may incur liabilities for losses associated with these newly acquired companies before we are able to rehabilitate such companies’ quality, safety and environmental programs.
Climate change legislation or regulations restricting emissions of greenhouse gases and related divestment and other efforts could increase our operating costs or reduce demand for our products.
Environmental advocacy groups and regulatory agencies in the U.S. and other countries have focused considerable attention on the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases and their potential role in climate change. In response to scientific studies suggesting that emissions of GHGs, including carbon dioxide and methane, are contributing to the warming of the Earth’s atmosphere and other climatic conditions, the U.S. Congress has considered adopting comprehensive legislation to reduce emissions of GHGs, and almost half of the states have already taken legal measures to reduce emissions of GHGs, primarily through measures to promote the use of renewable energy and/or regional GHG cap-and-trade programs. The Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”) has attempted to regulate greenhouse gas emissions under the federal Clean Air Act. In December 2009, the EPA determined that emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and certain other GHGs endanger public health and the environment because emissions of such gases are, according to the EPA, contributing to warming of the Earth’s atmosphere and other climatic changes. In October 2015, the EPA finalized the Clean Power Plan (CPP), which tried to impose additional obligations on the power generation sector to reduce GHG emissions. In August 2019, the EPA finalized the repeal of the 2015 regulations and replaced them with the Affordable Clean Energy rule (ACE), which designates heat rate improvement, or efficiency improvement, as the best system of emissions reduction for carbon dioxide from existing coal-fired electric utility generating units. In 2021, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia struck down the ACE rule but did not reinstate the former CPP regulation. The power of the EPA to reissue the CPP under Section 111(d) of the CAA will be decided by the Supreme Court in 2022. In August 2020, the EPA rescinded methane and volatile organic compound emissions standards for new and modified oil and gas transmission and storage infrastructure previously promulgated in 2016, as well as methane limits for new and modified oil and gas production and processing equipment. The EPA also relaxed requirements for oil and gas operators to monitor emissions leaks. However, in November 2021, the EPA proposed new NSPS updates and emission guidelines to reduce methane and other pollutants from the oil and gas industry. The EPA has also adopted rules requiring the reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from specified large greenhouse gas emission sources in the U.S., including oil and natural gas systems.
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Efforts have also been made and continue to be made in the international community toward the adoption of international treaties or protocols that would address global climate change issues. Although the U.S. had withdrawn from the Paris Agreement in November 2020, the Biden Administration officially reentered the U.S. into the agreement in February 2021. Under the Paris Agreement, the Biden Administration has committed the United States to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 50 - 52% from 2005 levels by 2030. In November 2021, the United States and other countries entered into the Glasgow Climate Pact, which includes a range of measures designed to address climate change, including but not limited to the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies, reducing methane emissions 30% by 2030, and cooperating toward the advancement of the development of clean energy.
The adoption of additional legislation or regulatory programs to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases could require us to incur increased operating costs to comply with new emissions-reduction or reporting requirements. Any such legislation or regulatory programs could also increase the cost of consuming, and thereby reduce demand for, hydrocarbons that certain of our customers produce and reduce revenues by other of our customers who provide services to those exploration and production customers. Consequently, legislation and regulatory programs to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition to the regulatory efforts described above, there have also been efforts in recent years aimed at the investment community, including investment advisers, sovereign wealth funds, public pension funds, universities and other groups, promoting the divestment of fossil fuel equities as well as to pressure lenders and other financial services companies to limit or curtail activities with companies engaged in the extraction of fossil fuel reserves. In connection with such developments, numerous market participants, including certain New York State pension and public employee retirement funds, have announced plans to completely or partially divest from fossil fuel and related stocks or otherwise pursue net-zero portfolio strategies. If these efforts are successful, our ability to access capital markets may be limited and our stock price may be negatively impacted.
Members of the investment community have recently increased their focus on sustainability practices, including practices related to GHGs and climate change, in the oil and natural gas industry. As a result, we and our customers have come under increasing pressure to improve our sustainability and other Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) performance and to increase our public reporting and disclosure on our ESG practices. Some of our customers have begun to screen their service providers, including us, for compliance with sustainability metrics and we may incur additional costs to comply with ESG reporting expectations and ESG-linked contracting policies for our customers and suppliers.
Additionally, members of the investment community have begun to screen companies such as ours for sustainability performance before investing in our stock. If we are unable to establish adequate sustainability practices, we may lose customers, our stock price may be negatively impacted, our reputation may be negatively affected, and it may be more difficult for us to compete effectively. Our efforts to improve our sustainability practices in response to these pressures may increase our costs, and we may be forced to implement technologies that are not economically viable in order to improve our sustainability performance and to perform services for certain customers. Finally, some scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, and floods and other climatic events.
Finally, increasing attention to the risks of climate change has resulted in an increased possibility of lawsuits or investigations brought by public and private entities against oil and natural gas companies in connection with their greenhouse gas emissions. Should we be targeted by any such litigation or investigations, we may incur liability, which, to the extent that societal pressures or political or other factors are involved, could be imposed without regard to the causation of or contribution to the asserted damage, or to other mitigating factors.
Risks Related to our International Operations:
Our business operations worldwide are subject to a number of U.S. federal laws and regulations, including restrictions imposed by the FCPA as well as trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the Commerce Department, as well as similar laws in non-U.S. jurisdictions that govern our operations by virtue of our presence or activities there.
We rely on a large number of agents in non-U.S. countries that have been identified as posing a high risk of corrupt activities and whose local laws and customs differ significantly from those in the U.S. In many countries, particularly in those with developing economies, it is common to engage in business practices that are prohibited by the regulations applicable to us. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions, including the UK Bribery Act 2010, (“anti-corruption laws”) prohibit corporations and individuals from engaging in certain activities to obtain or retain business or to influence a person working in an official capacity. We
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may be held responsible for violations by our employees, contractors and agents for violations of anti-corruption laws. We may also be held responsible for violations by an acquired company that occur prior to an acquisition, or subsequent to an acquisition but before we are able to institute our compliance procedures. In addition, our non-U.S. competitors that are not subject to the FCPA or similar anti-corruption laws may be able to secure business or other preferential treatment in such countries by means that such laws prohibit with respect to us. The UK Bribery Act 2010 is broader in scope than the FCPA, applies to public and private sector corruption, and contains no facilitating payments exception. A violation of any of these laws, even if prohibited by our policies, could have a material adverse effect on our business. Actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation, be expensive to defend, impair our ability to do business, and cause us to incur civil and criminal fines, penalties and sanctions.
Compliance with regulations relating to export controls, trade sanctions and embargoes administered by the countries in which we operate, including the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) and similar regulations in non-U.S. jurisdictions also pose a risk to us. We cannot provide products or services to certain countries, companies or individuals subject to U.S. and other countries’ trade sanctions. Furthermore, the laws and regulations concerning import activity, export record keeping and reporting, export controls and economic sanctions are complex and constantly changing. Any failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory trading obligations could result in criminal and civil penalties and sanctions, such as fines, imprisonment, debarment from governmental contracts, seizure of shipments and loss of import and export privileges.
Our exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations may result in fluctuations in our cash flows and could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Fluctuations in currency exchange rates could be material to us depending upon, among other things, our manufacturing locations and the sourcing for our raw materials and components. In particular, we are sensitive to fluctuations in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and each of the Canadian dollar, the British pound sterling, the Euro, and, to a lesser degree, the Mexican peso, the Chinese yuan, the Singapore dollar, and the Saudi riyal. There may be instances in which costs and revenue will not be matched with respect to currency denomination. As a result, to the extent that we expand on a global basis, higher portions of revenue, costs, assets and liabilities will be subject to fluctuations in foreign currency valuations. We may experience economic loss and a negative impact on earnings or net assets solely as a result of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Further, the markets in which we operate could restrict the removal or conversion of the local currency, resulting in our inability to hedge against these risks.
Risks Related to our Common Stock, Indebtedness and Financial Condition:
Our common stock price has been volatile, and we expect it to continue to remain volatile in the future.
The market price of common stock of companies engaged in the oil and natural gas equipment manufacturing and services industry has been volatile. Likewise, the market price of our common stock has varied significantly in the past. For example, in 2021, the market price of our common stock reached a high of $28.50 per share on June 2, 2021 and a low of $12.09 per share on January 4, 2021. Additionally, the Reverse Stock Split reduced the number of shares in our public float, which may limit trading and liquidity and increase volatility until more shares become available, if ever. We expect our stock price to continue to remain volatile given the cyclical nature of our industry and our limited public float.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness. Our leverage and debt service obligations restrict our operations and make us more vulnerable to adverse economic conditions.
We currently have a substantial amount of indebtedness, including approximately $257.0 million of 9.00% convertible secured notes due August 2025 (“2025 Notes”). Our level of indebtedness and restrictions in our debt agreements have significant consequences for our future prospects, including limiting our liquidity and flexibility in obtaining additional financing. In addition, we may have difficulty making debt service payments on our indebtedness as such payments become due. Furthermore, our $179.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility (“Credit Facility”), which had no borrowings outstanding as of December 31, 2021, is scheduled to mature the earlier of September 8, 2026 or 91 days prior to the maturity of the 2025 Notes. Our level of indebtedness and the terms of our debt agreements affect our operations in several ways, including the following:
requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to servicing existing debt obligations;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
limiting our ability to borrow funds, dispose of assets, pay dividends and make certain investments;
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reducing our flexibility to plan for, and react to, changes in the economy and in our industry; and
impairing our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate purposes.
Our ability to pay our expenses, and fund our working capital needs and debt obligations, will depend on our future performance, which will be affected by financial, business, economic, regulatory and other factors that are outside of our control. As a result of these factors, our business may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations to enable us to meet our debt obligations. In addition, under the terms of our Credit Facility, any failure to comply with the financial or other covenants of our indebtedness would result in an event of default, which would cause some or all of our indebtedness to become immediately due and payable and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The indenture governing our 2025 Notes and our Credit Facility contains operating and financial restrictions that restrict our business and financing activities.
Our indenture and Credit Facility contain, and any future indebtedness we incur may contain, a number of restrictive covenants that will impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to, among other things:
pay dividends on, purchase or redeem our common stock;
make certain investments;
incur or guarantee additional indebtedness or issue certain types of equity securities;
create certain liens;
sell assets, including equity interests in our restricted subsidiaries;
redeem or prepay subordinated debt or debt that is unsecured or secured on a basis junior to our notes;
restrict dividends or other payments of our restricted subsidiaries;
consolidate, merge or transfer all or substantially all of our assets;    
engage in transactions with affiliates;
create unrestricted subsidiaries; or
execute our acquisition strategy.
Our Credit Facility also contains covenants, which, among other things, require us in certain circumstances, on a consolidated basis, to maintain specified financial ratios or conditions. As a result of these covenants, we are limited in the manner in which we conduct our business, and we may be unable to engage in favorable business activities or finance future operations or capital needs. Our ability to borrow under the Credit Facility and comply with some of the covenants, ratios or tests contained in our indenture and Credit Facility may be affected by events beyond our control. If market or other economic conditions deteriorate, and there is a decrease in our accounts receivable and inventory, our ability to borrow under our Credit Facility will be reduced and our ability to comply with these covenants, ratios or tests may be impaired. A failure to comply with the covenants, ratios or tests would result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, would cause some or all of our indebtedness to become immediately due and payable and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to access the capital and credit markets to raise capital on favorable terms is limited by our debt level, industry conditions and credit rating.
Our ability to access the capital and credit markets is limited by, among other things, oil and natural gas prices, our existing capital structure, our credit ratings, the state of the economy, the health of the drilling and overall oil and natural gas industry, trends among investors to avoid companies associated with the production of hydrocarbon products, and the liquidity of the capital markets. Many of the factors that affect our ability to access capital markets are outside of our control and may be negatively impacted by market events. Recent trends and conditions in the capital and credit markets with respect to the energy sector, including environmental and climate change related divestment campaigns, limit our ability to access these markets or may significantly increase our cost of capital. Low levels of exploration and drilling activity have caused and may continue to cause lenders to increase the interest rates under our credit facilities, enact tighter lending standards, refuse to refinance existing debt on acceptable terms or at all and may reduce or cease to provide funding. If we are unable to access the capital or credit markets on terms acceptable to us, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity, particularly in respect of our ability to repay or refinance our debt.
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We have incurred impairment charges and we may incur additional impairment charges in the future.
We evaluate our long-lived assets, including property and equipment, intangible assets with definite lives and operating lease right of use assets for potential impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable. In performing our review for impairment, future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual value upon disposal are estimated. If the undiscounted future cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the assets, there is an indication that the asset may be impaired. The amount of the impairment is measured as the difference between the carrying value and the estimated fair value of the asset. The fair value is determined either through the use of an external valuation, or by means of an analysis of discounted future cash flows based on expected utilization.
For the year ended December 31, 2021, we did not recognize any impairment charges. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized impairment charges for property and equipment, intangible assets and operating lease right of use assets totaling $15.1 million, $5.3 million and $15.4 million, respectively. See Note 8 Impairments of Long-Lived Assets for further information related to these charges.
If we determine that the carrying value of our long-lived assets is less than their fair value, we would be required to record additional charges in the future, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Provisions in our organizational documents and under Delaware law could delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock.
The existence of some provisions in our organizational documents and under Delaware law could delay or prevent a change in control of our company that a stockholder may consider favorable, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of our company, even if the change of control would be beneficial to our stockholders. These provisions include:
a classified board of directors, so that only approximately one-third of our directors are elected each year;
authority of our board to fill vacancies and determine its size;
the ability of our board of directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval;
limitations on the removal of directors; and
limitations on the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings.
In addition, our amended and restated bylaws establish advance notice provisions for stockholder proposals and nominations for elections to the board of directors to be acted upon at meetings of stockholders.
LESA, through SCF, may significantly influence the outcome of stockholder voting and may exercise this voting power in a manner adverse to our other stockholders.
As of February 25, 2022, SCF held approximately 748 thousand shares of our common stock, equal to approximately 13% of the outstanding common stock at that date. LESA is the ultimate general partner of SCF and will exert significant influence over us, including over the outcome of most matters requiring a stockholder vote, such as the election of directors, adoption of amendments to our charter and bylaws and approval of transactions involving a change of control. LESA’s interests may differ from our other stockholders, and SCF may vote its common stock in a manner that may adversely affect those stockholders.
SCF is a party to a registration rights agreement with us, which requires us to effect the registration of its shares in certain circumstances. SCF has exercised such rights in the past. Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock by SCF, or the perception that such sales could occur, may adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock.
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We have renounced any interest in specified business opportunities.
Our certificate of incorporation provides that, so long as we have a director or officer who is affiliated with SCF (an “SCF Nominee”) and for a continuous period of one year thereafter, we renounce any interest or expectancy in any business opportunity in which any member of the SCF group participates or desires or seeks to participate in and that involves any aspect of the energy equipment or services business or industry, other than (i) any business opportunity that is brought to the attention of an SCF Nominee solely in such person’s capacity as a director or officer of our Company and with respect to which no other member of the SCF group independently receives notice or otherwise identifies such opportunity and (ii) any business opportunity that is identified by the SCF group solely through the disclosure of information by or on behalf of our Company. We refer to SCF and its other affiliates and its portfolio companies as the SCF group. We are not prohibited from pursuing any business opportunity with respect to which we have renounced any interest. No SCF nominee currently serves on our board of directors and, therefore, this provision in our certificate of incorporation is scheduled to expire in December 2022.
SCF has investments in other oilfield service companies that may compete with us, and SCF and its affiliates, other than our Company, may invest in other such companies in the future. LESA, the ultimate general partner of SCF, has an internal policy that discourages it from investing in two or more portfolio companies with substantially overlapping industry segments and geographic areas. However, LESA’s internal policy does not restrict the management or operation of its other individual portfolio companies from competing with us. Pursuant to LESA’s policy, LESA may allocate any potential opportunities to the existing portfolio company where LESA determines, in its discretion, such opportunities are the most logical strategic and operational fit. As a result, LESA or its affiliates may become aware, from time to time, of certain business opportunities, such as acquisition opportunities, and may direct such opportunities to its other portfolio companies, in which case we may not become aware of or otherwise have the ability to pursue such opportunities. Furthermore, LESA does not have a specific policy with regard to allocation of financial professionals and they are under no obligation to provide us with financial professionals.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

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Item 2. Properties
The following table describes the significant facilities owned or leased by us as of December 31, 2021 for our Drilling & Downhole (“D&D”), Completions (“C”) and Production (“P”) segments:
Country
Location
Number of facilitiesDescriptionLeased or OwnedSegments
CanadaRed Deer2Service/DistributionLeasedC
Calgary1ManufacturingLeasedC
Edmonton2Service/DistributionLeasedShared
Grande Prairie1Service/DistributionLeasedC
GermanyHamburg1ManufacturingLeasedD&D
Saudi ArabiaDammam1Manufacturing/DistributionOwnedShared
UAEDubai1Service/DistributionLeasedD&D
Jebel Ali1Service/DistributionLeasedD&D
United KingdomAberdeen1Service/DistributionLeasedD&D
Kirkbymoorside1ManufacturingOwnedD&D
United StatesBroussard, LA1Manufacturing/Service/DistributionOwnedShared
Bryan, TX1ManufacturingOwnedShared
Clearfield, PA1Manufacturing/Service/DistributionOwnedP
Dayton, TX1ManufacturingOwnedC
Fort Worth, TX1Manufacturing/ServiceLeasedC
Guthrie, OK1ManufacturingLeasedP
Houston, TX2Corporate/ManufacturingLeasedShared
Humble, TX1ManufacturingLeasedC
Midland, TX1Service/DistributionLeasedC
Odessa, TX1Service/DistributionLeasedC
Odessa, TX1Service/DistributionOwnedD&D
Pearland, TX1Manufacturing/DistributionOwnedD&D
Plantersville, TX1Manufacturing/DistributionOwnedD&D
Smock, PA1ServiceLeasedC
Stafford, TX1Manufacturing/DistributionLeasedP
Stafford, TX1ManufacturingOwnedD&D
Tyler, TX1DistributionLeasedD&D
Williston, ND1Service/DistributionLeasedShared
We believe our facilities are suitable for their present and intended purposes, and are adequate for our current and anticipated level of operations.
We incorporate by reference the information set forth in Item 1 and Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the information set forth in Note 6 Property and Equipment and Note 13 Commitments and Contingencies.
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Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Information related to Item 3. Legal Proceedings is included in Note 13 Commitments and Contingencies, which is incorporated herein by reference. In addition to these matters, we are involved in various other legal proceedings incidental to the conduct of our business. We do not believe that any of these legal proceedings will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operation or cash flows.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
Information About Our Executive Officers
The following table indicates the names, ages and positions of the executive officers of Forum as of February 25, 2022:
NameAgePosition
C. Christopher Gaut65Executive Chairman of the Board
Neal Lux46President and Chief Executive Officer
D. Lyle Williams52Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
John C. Ivascu44Executive Vice President, General Counsel, Chief Compliance Officer and Corporate Secretary
Michael D. Danford59Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer
C. Christopher Gaut. Mr. Gaut currently serves as Executive Chairman of the Board, having previously served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Forum from November 2018 until his retirement from those positions in February 2022, and as Chairman of the Board from December 2017. Prior to that, from May 2017 to December 2017, he served as Executive Chairman of the Board, and as Chief Executive Officer from May 2016 to May 2017. From August 2010 to May 2016, he served as President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board, and as one of our directors since December 2006. He served as a consultant to SCF Partners from November 2009 to August 2010, and an industry advisor from May 2017 to November 2018. Mr. Gaut served at Halliburton Company, a leading diversified oilfield services company, as President of the Drilling and Evaluation Division and prior to that as Chief Financial Officer, from March 2003 through April 2009. From April 2009 through November 2009, Mr. Gaut was a private investor. Prior to joining Halliburton Company in 2003, Mr. Gaut was a Co-Chief Operating Officer of Ensco International, a provider of offshore contract drilling services. He also served as Ensco's Chief Financial Officer from 1988 until 2003.
Neal Lux. Mr. Lux was appointed as President and Chief Executive Officer of Forum and as a director on Forum's board of directors effective February 18, 2022. Mr. Lux previously served as the Company's Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer from December 2020 to February 2022. From January 2009 to February 2022, Mr. Lux held various operations roles of increasing responsibility with the Company and its subsidiaries, including Executive Vice President - Operations; Senior Vice President - Completions; Managing Director - Global Tubing; and President, Global Tubing. He holds a B.S. in Industrial Engineering from Purdue University.
D. Lyle Williams, Jr. Mr. Williams has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since June 2020. Since January 2007, Mr. Williams has held various financial and operations roles, including Senior Vice President - Operations; Vice President - Corporate Development and Treasurer; Vice President - Operations Finance; Vice President - Finance and Accounting, Drilling and Subsea Segment; Senior Vice President - Downhole Technologies; Vice President - Subsea Products; and Vice President - Capital Equipment. Prior to joining Forum, Mr. Williams held various operations positions with Cooper Cameron Corporation, including Director of Operations - Engineering Products. He holds a B.A. in Economics and English from Rice University and an M.B.A. from Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration.
John C. Ivascu. Mr. Ivascu has served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel, Chief Compliance Officer and Corporate Secretary since June 2020. Since June 2011, Mr. Ivascu has held various legal roles of increasing responsibility, including Senior Vice President, General Counsel, Chief Compliance Officer and Secretary; Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary; Vice President, Deputy General Counsel and Secretary; Vice President, Associate General Counsel and Assistant Secretary; and Assistant General Counsel. From 2006 to June
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2011, Mr. Ivascu practiced corporate law at Vinson & Elkins L.L.P., representing public and private companies and investment banking firms in capital markets offerings, mergers and acquisitions, and corporate governance and bankruptcy matters. From 2004 to 2006, Mr. Ivascu served as an attorney for the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission, Division of Enforcement. Mr. Ivascu holds a B.B.A. from the Stephen M. Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan, and a J.D. from Brooklyn Law School.
Michael D. Danford. Mr. Danford has served as Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer since June 2020. Prior to that, Mr. Danford served as Senior Vice President - Human Resources from February 2015 to June 2020; and Vice President - Human Resources from November 2007 to February 2015. Prior to joining Forum, from August 2007 through November 2007, he worked at Trico Marine Services Inc., a privately held provider of subsea and marine support vessels and services to the oil and natural gas industry, as Vice President - Human Resources. From 1997 through July 2007, Mr. Danford served as Director of Human Resources and Vice President - Human Resources for Hydril Company, a publicly traded manufacturer of connections used for oil and natural gas drilling and production. From 1991 to 1997, Mr. Danford served in various human resources roles for Baker Hughes Incorporated, a publicly traded oilfield services company. Prior to joining Baker Hughes, from 1990 to 1991, Mr. Danford served as a recruiter and as an employee relations representative in the human resources department for Compaq Computer, a publicly traded developer and manufacturer of computer systems. Mr. Danford holds a B.S. degree in Computer Science from the University of Louisiana at Monroe (formerly Northeast Louisiana University).

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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock trades on the NYSE under the trading symbol “FET.” As of February 25, 2022, there were approximately 38 common stockholders of record. In calculating the number of shareholders, we consider clearing agencies and security position listings as one shareholder for each agency or listing.
No dividends were declared or issued during 2021 or 2020, and we do not currently have any plans to pay cash dividends in the future. Our future dividend policy is within the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon various factors, including our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements, investment opportunities, and restrictions under our loan agreements.
Purchase of Equity Securities
Following is a summary of our repurchases of our common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2021.
PeriodTotal number of shares purchased (a)Average price paid per shareTotal number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plan or programs (b)Maximum value of shares that may yet be purchased under the plan or program (in thousands) (b)
October 1, 2021 - October 31, 202145$24.25 $— 
November 1, 2021 - November 30, 202131,410$20.22 31,410$9,365 
December 1, 2021 - December 31, 202124,821$17.17 24,821$8,939 
Total56,276$18.88 56,231$8,939 
(a) 45 of the 56,276 shares purchased during the three months ended December 31, 2021 were acquired from employees in connection with the settlement of income tax and related benefit withholding obligations arising from the vesting of restricted stock grants. These shares were not part of a publicly announced program to purchase common stock.
(b) In November 2021, our board of directors approved a program for the repurchase of outstanding shares of our common stock with an aggregate purchase amount of up to $10 million. Shares may be repurchased under the program from time to time, in amounts and at prices that the company deems appropriate, subject to market and business conditions, applicable legal requirements and other considerations. The program may be executed using open market purchases pursuant to Rule 10b-18 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act") in privately negotiated agreements, by way of issuer tender offers, Rule 10b5-1 plans or other transactions. From the inception of the program through December 31, 2021, we have repurchased approximately 56 thousand shares of our common stock for aggregate consideration of approximately $1.1 million. Remaining authorization under this program is $8.9 million.

Item 6. [Reserved].
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes included under Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based on our current expectations, estimates and projections about our operations and the industry in which we operate. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of a variety of risks and uncertainties, including those described in “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary note regarding forward-looking statements” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We assume no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements.
Overview
We are a global company serving the oil, natural gas, industrial and renewable energy industries. FET provides value added solutions aimed at improving the safety, efficiency, and environmental impact of our customers' operations. We are an environmentally and socially responsible company headquartered in Houston, Texas with manufacturing, distribution and service facilities strategically located throughout the world. Our products include highly engineered capital equipment as well as consumable products. These consumable products are used in drilling, well construction and completions activities, within the supporting infrastructure, and at processing centers and refineries. Our engineered capital products are directed at drilling rig equipment for new rigs, upgrades and refurbishment projects, subsea construction and development projects, pressure pumping equipment, the placement of production equipment on new producing wells, downstream capital projects and capital equipment for renewable energy projects. In 2021, over 78% of our revenue was derived from consumable products and activity-based equipment, while the balance was primarily derived from capital products with a small amount from rental and other services.
We design, manufacture and supply high quality reliable products that create value for our diverse customer base, which includes, among others, oil and natural gas operators, land and offshore drilling contractors, oilfield service companies, subsea construction and service companies, and pipeline and refinery operators. In addition, we offer some of our products to renewable energy and new energy companies.
We expect that the world's long-term energy demand will continue to rise. We also expect hydrocarbons will continue to play a vital role in meeting the world's long-term energy needs while renewable energy sources continue to develop. As such, we remain focused on serving our customers in both oil and natural gas as well as renewable energy applications. We are also continuing to develop products to help oil and gas operators lower their current emissions while also deploying our existing product technologies in renewable energy applications and seeking to develop innovative equipment.
A summary of the products and services offered by each segment is as follows:
Drilling & Downhole. This segment designs, manufactures and supplies products and provides related services to the drilling, well construction, artificial lift and subsea energy construction markets, including applications in oil and natural gas, renewable energy, defense, and communications. The products and related services consist primarily of: (i) capital equipment and a broad line of expendable products consumed in the drilling process; (ii) well construction casing and cementing equipment and protection products for artificial lift equipment and cables; and (iii) subsea remotely operated vehicles and trenchers, submarine rescue vehicles, specialty components and tooling, and complementary subsea technical services.
Completions. This segment designs, manufactures and supplies products and provides related services to the coiled tubing, well stimulation and intervention markets. The products and related services consist primarily of: (i) capital and consumable products sold to the pressure pumping, hydraulic fracturing and flowback services markets, including hydraulic fracturing pumps, cooling systems, high-pressure flexible hoses and flow iron as well as wireline cable and pressure control equipment used in the well completion and intervention service markets; and (ii) coiled tubing strings and coiled line pipe and related services.
Production. This segment designs, manufactures and supplies products and provides related equipment and services for production and infrastructure markets. The products and related services consist primarily of: (i) engineered process systems, production equipment, as well as specialty separation equipment; and (ii) a wide range of industrial valves focused on serving oil and natural gas customers as well as power generation, renewable energy and other general industrial applications.
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Market Conditions
The level of demand for our products is directly related to the activity levels and the capital and operating budgets of our customers, which in turn are heavily influenced by energy prices and expectations as to future price trends. In addition, the availability of existing capital equipment adequate to serve exploration and production requirements, or lack thereof, drives demand for our capital equipment products.
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic and associated actions taken around the world to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 caused unprecedented declines in economic activity, energy demand and oil and natural gas prices. In response, OPEC+ implemented significant reductions in oil production and North American exploration and production companies aggressively reduced drilling and completion activities. In response to the decline in demand for our products in 2020, we implemented significant cost reduction actions, including exiting facilities, lowering headcount, reducing salaries, temporarily suspending the Company’s matching contribution to the U.S. and Canada defined contribution retirement plans, and furloughing select employee groups. Certain facility closures and headcount reduction efforts continued into 2021.
During 2021, distribution of vaccines and reopening of certain economies resulted in increasing demand for oil and natural gas. At the same time, the supply of oil and natural gas has been impacted by ongoing constraints by OPEC+ and North American exploration and production companies. As a result of these supply and demand factors, commodity prices increased substantially in 2021. In addition, ongoing COVID-19 outbreaks and worldwide labor constraints continue to cause disruptions in global supply chains, which have led to inflationary pressures for certain goods and services.
Our revenues are highly correlated to the U.S. drilling rig count, which has increased to 586 rigs as of the end of 2021 from a low of 244 rigs in August 2020. The level of active hydraulic fracturing fleets also increased substantially in 2021 in order to meet increasing oil demand. Despite these improvements, drilling and completions activity remains significantly below pre-pandemic levels. In addition, publicly owned exploration and production companies in North America remain under pressure to generate positive cash flows and constrain capital expenditures. In contrast, privately owned exploration and production companies in North America have increased their drilling and completions activity in response to the higher oil and natural gas price environment. Furthermore, consolidation of exploration and production and service companies continued in 2021.
Activity levels have also increased in international markets, as well as in global offshore and subsea activity. As a result, demand for our drilling and subsea capital equipment offerings increased during 2021 due to an improved outlook for our international drilling customers and the diversification of our subsea product line outside of the oil and natural gas industry.
On December 31, 2020, we sold assets pertaining to our ABZ and Quadrant valve brands for total consideration of $104.6 million, and recognized a gain on disposition of $88.4 million. The disposition of these brands resulted in a substantial decrease in our Valve Solutions product line’s revenue compared to the prior year.
The table below shows average crude oil and natural gas prices for West Texas Intermediate crude oil (WTI), United Kingdom Brent crude oil (Brent), and Henry Hub natural gas:
20212020
Average global oil, $/bbl
West Texas Intermediate$68.13 $39.16 
United Kingdom Brent$70.86 $41.96 
Average North American Natural Gas, $/Mcf
Henry Hub$3.89 $2.03 
The price of oil has varied dramatically over the last two years. The spot prices for WTI and Brent fell from $61.14 and $67.77 per barrel, respectively, as of December 31, 2019 to lows below $15.00 per barrel in April 2020. Since that time, oil prices have rebounded to an average of $68.13 and $70.86 for WTI and Brent, respectively, as of December 31, 2021. In addition, average natural gas prices were 91.6% higher in 2021 compared to 2020.

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The table below shows the average number of active drilling rigs operating by geographic area and drilling for different purposes based on the weekly rig count information published by Baker Hughes Company.
20212020
Active Rigs by Location
United States478 433 
Canada132 89 
International755 825 
Global Active Rigs1,365 1,347 
Land vs. Offshore Rigs
Land1,172 1,133 
Offshore193 214 
Global Active Rigs1,365 1,347 
U.S. Commodity Target
Oil/Gas379 345 
Gas98 85 
Unclassified
Total U.S. Rigs478 433 
U.S. Well Path
Horizontal431 384 
Vertical22 21 
Directional25 28 
Total U.S. Active Rigs478 433 
A substantial portion of our revenue is impacted by the level of rig activity and the number of wells completed. The average U.S. rig count for 2021 increased 10% as compared to 2020, while the international rig count decreased 8% compared to 2020. The U.S. rig count started 2020 at 805 working rigs and fell 70% to a low of 244 rigs in August 2020. Since that time, the number of active rigs has partially recovered, ending with 586 rigs as of December 31, 2021. Despite this improvement, the U.S. drilling rig count remains significantly below pre-pandemic levels.
The table below shows the amount of total inbound orders by segment for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
(in millions of dollars)20212020
Orders:
Drilling & Downhole$282.6 $208.5 
Completions207.0 112.8 
Production142.7 151.3 
Total Orders$632.3 $472.6 



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Results of operations
Year ended December 31,Change
(in thousands of dollars, except per share information)20212020$%
Revenue:
Drilling & Downhole$239,895 $216,836 $23,059 10.6 %
Completions185,018 118,685 66,333 55.9 %
Production116,710 177,510 (60,800)(34.3)%
Eliminations(555)(555)— *
Total revenue$541,068 $512,476 28,592 5.6 %
Cost of sales:
Drilling & Downhole$170,610 $192,640 $(22,030)(11.4)%
Completions146,240 165,098 (18,858)(11.4)%
Production101,432 166,314 (64,882)(39.0)%
Eliminations(555)(555)— *
Total cost of sales$417,727 $523,497 $(105,770)(20.2)%
Gross profit:
Drilling & Downhole$69,285 $24,196 $45,089 186.3 %
Completions38,778 (46,413)85,191 183.5 %
Production15,278 11,196 4,082 36.5 %
Total gross profit$123,341 $(11,021)$134,362 1,219.1 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses:
Drilling & Downhole$64,536 $72,160 $(7,624)(10.6)%
Completions43,310 50,891 (7,581)(14.9)%
Production29,632 44,614 (14,982)(33.6)%
Corporate31,408 30,012 1,396 4.7 %
Total selling, general and administrative expenses$168,886 $197,677 $(28,791)(14.6)%
Segment operating income (loss):
Drilling & Downhole$4,749 $(47,964)$52,713 109.9 %
Operating margin %2.0 %(22.1)%
Completions(4,532)(97,304)92,772 95.3 %
Operating margin %(2.4)%(82.0)%
Production(14,354)(33,418)19,064 57.0 %
Operating margin %(12.3)%(18.8)%
Corporate(31,408)(30,012)(1,396)(4.7)%
Total segment operating loss$(45,545)$(208,698)$163,153 78.2 %
Operating margin %(8.4)%(40.7)%
Impairments of intangible assets, property and equipment— 20,394 (20,394)*
Loss (gain) on disposal of assets and other(1,052)2,531 (3,583)*
Operating loss(44,493)(231,623)187,130 80.8 %
Interest expense32,009 30,268 1,741 5.8 %
Foreign exchange losses and other, net217 6,470 (6,253)*
Loss (gain) on extinguishment of debt5,290 (72,478)77,768 *
Deferred loan costs written off— 2,262 (2,262)*
Gain on disposition of business— (88,375)88,375 *
Total other (income) expense, net37,516 (121,853)159,369 *
Loss before income taxes(82,009)(109,770)27,761 25.3 %
Income tax expense (benefit)642 (12,881)13,523 *
Net loss(82,651)(96,889)14,238 14.7 %
Weighted average shares outstanding
Basic5,643 5,577 
Diluted5,643 5,577 
Loss per share
Basic$(14.65)$(17.37)
Diluted$(14.65)$(17.37)
* not meaningful


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Revenue
Our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $541.1 million, an increase of $28.6 million, or 5.6%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. For the year ended December 31, 2021, our Drilling & Downhole segment, Completions segment, and Production segment comprised 44.3%, 34.1% and 21.6% of our total revenue, respectively, compared to 42.3%, 23.1% and 34.6%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2020. The overall increase in revenue is primarily related to higher sales volumes in the Drilling and Downhole and Completions segments due to improving market conditions in 2021 compared to 2020, which was negatively impacted by the COVID 19 pandemic. Offsetting the overall increase is a $41.1 million decrease from the fourth quarter 2020 divestiture of our ABZ and Quadrant valve brands within our Production segment. The changes in revenue by operating segment consisted of the following:
Drilling & Downhole segment — Revenue was $239.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of $23.1 million, or 10.6%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase includes an $18.5 million, or 33.3%, increase in revenue for our Subsea Technologies product line primarily due to higher sales of Work Class ROVs into international markets. Revenue for our Downhole Technologies product line increased by $5.1 million, or 8.0%, primarily due to higher sales volumes of casing and cementing tools as the number of wells drilled in 2021 recovered from the historically low activity levels in 2020 during the COVID 19 pandemic. Revenue for our Drilling Technologies product line was comparable year-over-year as higher sales volumes of consumable products were offset by lower repair and service revenues.
Completions segment — Revenue was $185.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of $66.3 million, or 55.9%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase includes a $40.3 million, or 71.3%, increase in sales volumes for our Stimulation and Intervention product line and a $26.1 million, or 42%, increase in sales volumes for our Coiled Tubing product line. These higher revenue levels were driven by increasing U.S. hydraulic fracturing and well intervention service activity levels in 2021 compared to a rapidly declining market in 2020 when service companies were idling equipment in response to historically low levels of oil demand as a result of the COVID 19 pandemic.
Production segment — Revenue was $116.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, a decrease of $60.8 million, or 34.3%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease includes a $41.1 million decline from the divestiture of our ABZ and Quadrant valve brands in the fourth quarter 2020. The remaining decrease was driven by a $15.0 million decline in sales volumes of our valve products, particularly sales into the North America downstream and midstream markets, and a $4.8 million decrease in revenue for our Production Equipment product line from lower sales volumes of our surface production equipment, partially offset by higher sales volumes for our process oil treatment equipment due to increased project activity with international downstream customers.
Segment operating income (loss) and segment operating margin percentage
Segment operating loss for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $45.5 million compared to a loss of $208.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. For the year ended December 31, 2021, segment operating margin percentage was (8.4)% compared to (40.7)% for the year ended December 31, 2020. Segment operating margin percentage is calculated by dividing segment operating income (loss) by revenue for the period. The change in operating loss and segment operating margin percentage for each segment is explained as follows:
Drilling & Downhole segment — Segment operating income was $4.7 million, or 2.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to a loss of $48.0 million, or (22.1)%, for the year ended December 31, 2020. The $52.7 million improvement in segment operating results includes higher gross profit from the 10.6% increase in revenues discussed above. In addition, operating results improved due to a $20.4 million decrease in inventory write downs, a $5.3 million decrease in impairments of operating lease right of use assets and reductions in restructuring and employee related costs due to headcount, salary and other cost reductions implemented in 2020.
Completions segment — Segment operating loss was $4.5 million, or (2.4)%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to a loss of $97.3 million, or (82.0)% for the year ended December 31, 2020. The $92.8 million improvement in segment operating results includes higher gross profit from the 55.9% increase in revenues discussed above. In addition, operating results improved due to a $51.4 million decrease in inventory write downs, a $6.1 million decrease in impairments of operating lease right of use assets and reductions in restructuring and employee related costs due to headcount, salary and other cost reductions implemented in 2020.
Production segment — Segment operating loss was $14.4 million, or (12.3)%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to a loss of $33.4 million, or (18.8)% for the year ended December 31, 2020. The $19.1 million improvement in segment operating results is primarily attributable to a $20.9 million decrease in inventory write downs, a $2.2 million decrease in impairments of operating lease right of use assets and reductions in restructuring and employee related costs due to headcount, salary and other cost reductions implemented in 2020. These
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improvements in operating results were partially offset by the reduction in operating income from the fourth quarter 2020 disposition of our ABZ and Quadrant valve brands.
Corporate — Selling, general and administrative expenses for Corporate were $31.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, a $1.4 million increase compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase was primarily related to higher variable compensation costs, partially offset by a $1.5 million decrease in impairments of operating lease right of use assets and a decrease in professional fees. Corporate costs include, among other items, payroll related costs for management, administration, finance, legal, and human resources personnel; professional fees for legal, accounting and related services; and marketing costs.
Other items not included in segment operating loss
Several items are not included in segment operating loss, but are included in the total operating loss. These items include impairments of intangible assets, property and equipment, and loss (gain) on disposal of assets and other. For further information related to impairments of intangible assets, property and equipment, see Note 8 Impairments of Long-Lived Assets.
Other income and expense
Other income and expense includes interest expense, loss (gain) on extinguishment of debt, deferred loan costs written off, foreign exchange losses and other, net, and gain on disposition of business.
We incurred $32.0 million of interest expense during the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of $1.7 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2020 due to higher non-cash amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs associated with our 2025 Notes as well as a higher interest rate on our 2025 Notes compared to our previous 2021 Notes. These increases were partially offset by lower average debt balances outstanding in 2021 compared to 2020.
The foreign exchange losses are primarily the result of movements in the British pound, Euro and Canadian dollar relative to the U.S. dollar. These movements in exchange rates create foreign exchange gains or losses when applied to monetary assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the location’s functional currency, primarily U.S. dollar denominated cash, trade account receivables and net intercompany receivable balances for our entities using a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar.
During the year ended December 31, 2021, we recognized a $5.3 million loss on extinguishment of debt from the repurchase of an aggregate $59.9 million of principal amount of our 2025 Notes for $58.6 million. The net carrying value of the extinguished debt, including unamortized debt discount and debt issuance costs, was $53.3 million.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized $72.5 million of gains on extinguishment of debt, including a $43.8 million gain from the repurchase of notes in the first half of 2020 and a $28.7 million gain from the exchange of notes in the third quarter of 2020. During the first half of 2020, we repurchased an aggregate $71.9 million of principal amount of our 6.25% unsecured notes due 2021 (the “2021 Notes”) for $27.7 million and recognized a net gain of $43.8 million reflecting the difference in the amount paid and the net carrying value of the extinguished debt, including debt issuance costs and unamortized debt premium. In the third quarter of 2020, we exchanged $315.5 million principal amount of 2021 Notes for new 2025 Notes. This transaction was accounted for as an extinguishment of the 2021 Notes with the new 2025 Notes recorded at fair value on the transaction date, resulting in a $28.7 million gain on extinguishment of debt. See Note 9 Debt for further information.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, we wrote-off $2.3 million of deferred loan costs including $2.0 million for the termination of previous discussions related to a potential exchange offer for our 2021 Notes and $0.3 million related to amending our Credit Facility.
In the fourth quarter of 2020, we sold certain assets of our ABZ and Quadrant valve brands and recognized a gain on disposition totaling $88.4 million. See Note 4 Acquisitions & Dispositions for further information related to this transaction.
Taxes
We recorded tax expense of $0.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to a tax benefit of $12.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The estimated annual effective tax rates for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were impacted by losses in jurisdictions where the recording of a tax benefit is not available. Furthermore, the tax expense or benefit recorded can vary from period to period depending on the Company’s relative mix of earnings and losses by jurisdiction.
The tax benefit for the year ended December 31, 2020 included a $16.6 million benefit related to a carryback claim for U.S. federal tax losses based on provisions in the U.S. Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”), which was signed into law on March 27, 2020. The CARES Act provided relief to corporate taxpayers by permitting a five-year carryback of 2018-2020 NOLs, increased the 30% limitation on interest expense
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deductibility to 50% of adjusted taxable income for 2019 and 2020, and accelerated refunds for minimum tax credit carryforwards, among other provisions. The tax effects of changes in tax laws are recognized in the period in which the law is enacted. See Note 11 Income Taxes for additional information.
Liquidity and capital resources
Sources and uses of liquidity
Our internal sources of liquidity are cash on hand and cash flows from operations, while our primary external sources include trade credit, the Credit Facility and the 2025 Notes. Our primary uses of capital have been for inventory, sales on credit to our customers, maintenance and growth capital expenditures, and debt repayments. We continually monitor other potential capital sources, including equity and debt financing, to meet our investment and target liquidity requirements. Our future success and growth will be highly dependent on our ability to generate positive operating cash flow and access outside sources of capital.
As of December 31, 2020, we had $316.9 million principal amount of 2025 Notes outstanding and $13.1 million outstanding under our revolving Credit Facility. During the year ended December 31, 2021 we repurchased $59.9 million principal amount of our 2025 Notes and repaid the $13.1 million outstanding under our revolving Credit Facility. Following these transactions, we had $257.0 million principal amount of 2025 Notes and no borrowings outstanding under our Credit Facility as of December 31, 2021.
In September 2021, we amended our Credit Facility to, among other things, extend the maturity date to September 2026, reduce the aggregate amount of the commitment under the Credit Facility to $179.0 million, and change the interest rate applicable to outstanding loans.
See Note 9 Debt for further details related to the terms for our 2025 Notes and Credit Facility.
As of December 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents of $46.9 million and $127.4 million of availability under our Credit Facility. We anticipate that our future working capital requirements for our operations will fluctuate directionally with revenues. Furthermore, availability under our Credit Facility will fluctuate directionally based on the level of our eligible accounts receivable and inventory subject to applicable sublimits. In addition, we expect total 2022 capital expenditures to be less than $10.0 million, consisting of, among other items, replacing end of life machinery and equipment.
We expect our available cash on-hand, cash generated by operations, and estimated availability under our Credit Facility to be adequate to fund current operations during the next 12 months. In addition, based on existing market conditions and our expected liquidity needs, among other factors, we may use a portion of our cash flows from operations, proceeds from divestitures, securities offerings or other eligible capital to reduce the principal amount of our 2025 Notes outstanding.
In November 2021, our board of directors approved a program for the repurchase of outstanding shares of our common stock with an aggregate purchase amount of up to $10.0 million. Shares may be repurchased under the program from time to time, in amounts and at prices that the company deems appropriate, subject to market and business conditions, applicable legal requirements and other considerations. In the fourth quarter of 2021, we repurchased approximately 56,000 shares of our common stock for aggregate consideration of approximately $1.1 million. Remaining authorization under this program is $8.9 million.
In the fourth quarter of 2021, we completed the acquisition of Hawker Equipment Solutions, LLC (“Hawker”) for total cash consideration of $5.1 million, of which, $3.4 million was paid in the fourth quarter of 2021 with the balance expected to be paid over the next five years. In 2020, we completed the disposition of our ABZ and Quadrant valve brands for total cash consideration of $103.4 million. For additional information, see Note 4 Acquisitions & Dispositions. We may pursue acquisitions in the future, which may be funded with cash and/or equity. Our ability to make significant acquisitions for cash may require us to pursue additional equity or debt financing, which we may not be able to obtain on terms acceptable to us or at all.
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Our cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are presented below (in thousands):
  Year ended December 31,
20212020
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$(15,775)$3,883 
Net cash provided by investing activities10,698 108,250 
Net cash used in financing activities(76,243)(41,765)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash(439)338 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$(81,759)$70,706 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
Net cash used in operating activities was $15.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to $3.9 million of cash provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decline in operating cash flows is primarily attributable to changes in working capital which provided cash of $6.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to providing $57.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. This decline was partially offset by an improvement in net income adjusted for non-cash items which used $9.1 million of cash for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to using $53.5 million of cash for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Net cash provided by investing activities
Net cash provided by investing activities was $10.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 including $10.8 million of cash received to settle a note receivable from the 2019 sale of our equity interest in Ashtead Technology and $7.0 million of proceeds from the sale of property and equipment. These cash inflows were partially offset by $3.4 million of cash paid for the acquisition of Hawker and $2.4 million of capital expenditures. Net cash provided by investing activities was $108.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 including $104.6 million from the sale of certain assets of our ABZ and Quadrant brands of valve products and $5.3 million of proceeds from the sale of property and equipment, partially offset by $2.2 million of capital expenditures.
Net cash used in financing activities
Net cash used in financing activities was $76.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 including $58.6 million of cash used to repurchase 2025 Notes and $13.1 of repayments on the revolving Credit Facility. Net cash used in financing activities was $41.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 including $40.3 million of cash used to repurchase 2021 Notes, $9.7 million paid for deferred financing costs and a $3.5 million early participation payment for the bond exchange. These cash outflows were partially offset by $13.1 million of net borrowings on our Credit Facility in 2020.
Off-balance sheet arrangements
As of December 31, 2021, we had no off-balance sheet instruments or financial arrangements, other than letters of credit entered into in the ordinary course of business. For additional information, refer to Note 13 Commitments and Contingencies.
Supplemental Guarantor Financial Information
The Company’s 2025 Notes are guaranteed by our domestic subsidiaries which are 100% owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company. The guarantees are full and unconditional, joint and several.
The guarantees of the 2025 Notes are (i) pari passu in right of payment with all existing and future senior indebtedness of such guarantor, including all obligations under our Credit Facility; (ii) secured by certain collateral of such guarantor, subject to permitted liens under the indenture governing the 2025 Notes; (iii) effectively senior to all unsecured indebtedness of that guarantor, to the extent of the value of the collateral securing the 2025 Notes (after giving effect to the liens securing our Credit Facility and any other senior liens on the collateral); and (v) senior in right of payment to any future subordinated indebtedness of that guarantor.
In the event of a bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization of any of the non-guarantor subsidiaries of the 2025 Notes, the non-guarantor subsidiaries of such notes will pay the holders of their debt and their trade creditors before they will be able to distribute any of their assets to the Company or to any guarantors.
The 2025 Notes guarantees shall each be released upon (i) any sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of such guarantor (by merger, consolidation or otherwise) to a person that is not (either before or after giving effect to such transaction) the Company or a subsidiary, if the sale or other disposition does not violate the
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applicable provisions of the indenture governing such notes; (ii) any sale, exchange or transfer (by merger, consolidation or otherwise) of the equity interests of such guarantor after which the applicable guarantor is no longer a subsidiary, which sale, exchange or transfer does not violate the applicable provisions of the indenture governing such notes; (iii) legal or covenant defeasance or satisfaction and discharge of the indenture governing such notes; or (iv) dissolution of such guarantor, provided no default or event of default has occurred that is continuing.
The obligations of each guarantor of the 2025 Notes under its guarantee will be limited to the maximum amount as will, after giving effect to all other contingent and fixed liabilities of such guarantor (including, without limitation, any guarantees under the Credit Facility) and any collections from or payments made by or on behalf of any other guarantor in respect of the obligations of such other guarantor under its guarantee or pursuant to its contribution obligations under the applicable indenture, result in the obligations of such guarantor under its guarantee not constituting a fraudulent conveyance, fraudulent preference or fraudulent transfer or otherwise reviewable transaction under applicable law. Nonetheless, in the event of the bankruptcy, insolvency or financial difficulty of a guarantor, such guarantor’s obligations under its guarantee may be subject to review and avoidance under applicable fraudulent conveyance, fraudulent preference, fraudulent transfer and insolvency laws.
We are presenting the following summarized financial information for the Company and the subsidiary guarantors (collectively referred to as the "Obligated Group") pursuant to Rule 13-01 of Regulation S-X, Guarantors and Issuers of Guaranteed Securities Registered or Being Registered. For purposes of the following summarized financial information, transactions between the Company and the subsidiary guarantors, presented on a combined basis, have been eliminated and information for the non-guarantor subsidiaries have been excluded. Amounts due to the non-guarantor subsidiaries and other related parties, as applicable, have been separately presented within the summarized financial information below.
Summarized financial information was as follows (in thousands):
  
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except per share information)20212020
Revenues$401,876 $393,704 
Cost of sales323,914 431,670 
Operating loss(46,827)(238,608)
Net loss(82,651)(96,889)

  
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except per share information)20212020
Current assets$327,281 $385,364 
Noncurrent assets298,172 332,486 
Current liabilities144,487 105,393 
Payables to non-guarantor subsidiaries125,281 102,885 
Noncurrent liabilities259,622 324,954 
Critical accounting policies and estimates
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In preparing our consolidated financial statements, we make judgments, estimates and assumptions affecting the amounts reported. We base our estimates on factors including historical experience and various assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. These factors form the basis for making estimates about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Certain accounting policies involve judgments and uncertainties to such an extent that there is a reasonable likelihood that materially different amounts could have been reported under different conditions, or if different assumptions had been used. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on a regular basis. Actual results may differ from these estimates and assumptions used in preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
In order to provide a better understanding of how we make judgments, and develop estimates and assumptions about future events, we have described our most critical accounting policies and estimates used in preparation of our consolidated financial statements below.
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Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606 (“ASC 606”), when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. For the year ended December 31, 2021, approximately 91% of our revenue was recognized from goods transferred to customers at a point in time while 9% of our revenue was recognized from goods transferred to customers over time.
Although terms of our contracts may vary considerably, the 9% of revenues recognized over time relate to certain contracts in our Subsea and Production Equipment product lines which are typically based on a fixed amount for the entire contract. Recognition over time for these contracts is supported by our assessment of the products supplied as having no alternative use to us and by clauses in the contracts that provide us with an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date. We use the cost-to-cost method to measure progress for these contracts because it best depicts the transfer of assets to the customer which occurs as costs are incurred on the contract. The amount of revenue recognized is calculated based on the ratio of costs incurred to date compared to total estimated costs which requires management to calculate reasonably dependable estimates of total contract costs. Whenever revisions of estimated contract costs and contract values indicate that the contract costs will exceed estimated revenues, thus creating a loss, a provision for the total estimated loss is recorded in that period. We recognize revenue and cost of sales each period based upon the advancement of the work-in-progress unless the stage of completion is insufficient to enable a reasonably certain forecast of profit to be established. In such cases, no profit is recognized during the period.
Accounting estimates during the course of projects may change. The effect of such a change, which can be upward as well as downward, is accounted for in the period of change, and the cumulative income recognized to date is adjusted to reflect the latest estimates. These revisions to estimates are accounted for on a prospective basis.
Contracts are sometimes modified to account for changes in product specifications or requirements. Most of our contract modifications are for goods and services that are not distinct from the existing contract. As such, these modifications are accounted for as if they were part of the existing contract, and therefore, the effect of the modification on the transaction price and our measure of progress for the performance obligation to which it relates is recognized as an adjustment to revenue on a cumulative catch-up basis.
Inventories
Inventory, consisting of finished goods and materials and supplies held for resale, is carried at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We evaluate our inventories based on an analysis of stocking levels, historical sales levels and future sales forecasts, to determine obsolete, slow-moving and excess inventory. While we have policies for calculating and recording reserves against inventory carrying values, we exercise judgment in establishing and applying these policies.
As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, our inventory reserve balances were $62.9 million and $144.9 million, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, we recognized inventory write downs totaling $8.1 million and $100.8 million, respectively. These charges are all included in “Cost of sales” in the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss. See Note 5 Inventories for further information related to these charges.
Long-lived assets
As of December 31, 2021, our long-lived assets included property and equipment, definite lived intangibles, and operating lease right of use assets with balances of $94.0 million, $217.4 million and $25.4 million, respectively. Key estimates related to long-lived assets include useful lives and recoverability of carrying values and changes in such estimates could have a significant impact on financial results.
We review long-lived assets for potential impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable. In performing the review for impairment, future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposal are estimated. If the undiscounted future cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the assets, there is an indication that the asset may be impaired. The amount of the impairment is measured as the difference between the carrying value and the estimated fair value of the asset. The fair value is determined either through the use of an external valuation, or by means of an analysis of discounted future cash flows based on expected utilization. The impairment loss recognized represents the excess of an assets’ carrying value as compared to its estimated fair value.
For the year ended December 31, 2021, we did not recognize any impairment charges. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized impairment charges for property and equipment, intangible assets and operating lease right of use assets totaling $15.1 million, $5.3 million and $15.4 million, respectively. See Note 8 Impairments of Long-Lived Assets for further information related to these charges.
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Income taxes
We follow the liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based upon temporary differences between the carrying amounts and tax bases of our assets and liabilities at the balance sheet date, and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. We recognize deferred tax assets to the extent that we believe these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax-planning and recent operating results. Any changes in our judgment as to the realizability of our deferred tax assets are recorded as an adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance in the period the change occurs. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized tax expense for valuation allowances totaling $25.3 million. See Note 11 Income Taxes for further information related to these charges.
The accounting guidance for income taxes requires that we recognize the financial statement benefit of a tax position only after determining that the relevant tax authority would more likely than not sustain the position following an audit. If a tax position meets the “more likely than not” recognition criteria, the accounting guidance requires the tax position be measured at the largest amount of benefit greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. If management determines that likelihood of sustaining the realization of the tax benefit is less than or equal to 50%, then the tax benefit is not recognized in the consolidated financial statements.
We have operations in countries other than the U.S. Consequently, we are subject to the jurisdiction of a number of taxing authorities. The final determination of tax liabilities involves the interpretation of local tax laws, tax treaties, and related authorities in each jurisdiction. Changes in the operating environment, including changes in tax law or interpretation of tax law and currency repatriation controls, could impact the determination of our tax liabilities for a given tax year.
Recent accounting pronouncements
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), which we adopt as of the specified effective date. Refer to Note 2 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies for information related to recent accounting pronouncements.
Cautionary note regarding forward-looking statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond the Company’s control. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K regarding our strategy, future operations, financial position, estimated revenues and losses, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. When used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the words “will,” “could,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “expect,” “may,” “continue,” “predict,” “potential,” “project” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain such identifying words.
All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We disclaim any obligation to update or revise these statements unless required by law, and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations reflected in or suggested by the forward-looking statements we make in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are reasonable, forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from our plans, intentions or expectations. This may be the result of various factors, including, but not limited to, those factors discussed in “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 7A. Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk

Not required under Regulation S-K for “smaller reporting companies.”
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Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Page

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the shareholders and the Board of Directors of Forum Energy Technologies, Incorporated
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Forum Energy Technologies, Incorporated and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of comprehensive loss, changes in stockholders' equity, and cash flows, for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated March 4, 2022, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Inventory — Refer to Notes 2 and 5 to the financial statements
Critical Audit Matter Description
Inventory consists of finished goods and materials and supplies which are carried at the lower of cost or net realizable value. The Company evaluates the net realizable values of inventories based on analysis of inventory levels including excess, obsolete and slow-moving items, historical sales experience and future sales forecasts. The Company’s evaluation of net realizable value is performed at each location and is based on information and assumptions specific to that location. Changes in these assumptions could have a significant impact on the recorded inventory amounts or the amount of inventory write-downs. The inventory, net balance at December 31, 2021 was $241.7 million and the amount of inventory reserve was $62.9 million.
Given the significant judgments and assumptions made by management in applying the methodology used to determine net realizable value, future sales forecasts, and the reports utilized to determine inventory levels and
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historical sales experiences, performing audit procedures required a high degree of auditor judgment and increased extent of effort.
How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to the net realizable value of inventory included the following, among others:
We made inquiries of business unit managers as well as executives, sales, and operations personnel about the expected product lifecycles and product development plans and historical usage by product.
We have tested the forecasted demand by comparing internal and external information (e.g. historical usage, contracts, communications with customers, product development plans, and macroeconomic conditions) with the Company’s forecasted demand.
We evaluated management’s overall forecasted demand by comparing actual results to historical forecasts.
We considered the existence of contradictory evidence based on reading of internal communications to management and the board of directors, Company press releases, and analysts' reports, as well as our observations and inquiries as to changes within the business.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Houston, Texas
March 4, 2022

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2019.



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Forum Energy Technologies, Inc. and subsidiaries
Consolidated statements of comprehensive loss
  
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except per share information)20212020
Revenues$541,068 $512,476 
Cost of sales417,727 523,497 
Gross profit123,341 (11,021)
Operating expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses168,886 197,677 
Impairments of intangible assets, property and equipment 20,394 
Loss (gain) on disposal of assets and other(1,052)2,531 
Total operating expenses167,834 220,602 
Operating loss(44,493)(231,623)
Other expense (income)
Interest expense32,009 30,268 
Loss (gain) on extinguishment of debt5,290 (72,478)
Deferred loan costs written off 2,262 
Foreign exchange losses and other, net217 6,470 
Gain on disposition of business (88,375)
Total other expense (income), net37,516 (121,853)
Loss before income taxes(82,009)(109,770)
Income tax expense (benefit)642 (12,881)
Net loss(82,651)(96,889)
Weighted average shares outstanding
Basic5,643 5,577 
Diluted5,643 5,577 
Loss per share
Basic$(14.65)$(17.37)
Diluted$(14.65)$(17.37)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax of $0:
Net loss(82,651)(96,889)
Change in foreign currency translation(1,479)9,249 
Gain (loss) on pension liability840 (700)
Comprehensive loss$(83,290)$(88,340)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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Forum Energy Technologies, Inc. and subsidiaries
Consolidated balance sheets
(in thousands, except share information)December 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Assets
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$46,858 $128,617 
Accounts receivable—trade, net of allowances of $11,114 and $9,217
123,903 80,606 
Inventories, net241,740 251,747 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets23,702 19,018 
Costs and estimated profits in excess of billings8,285 8,516 
Accrued revenue2,245 1,687 
Total current assets446,733 490,191 
Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation94,005 113,668 
Operating lease assets25,431 31,520 
Deferred financing costs, net1,484 249 
Intangibles, net217,405 240,444 
Deferred income taxes, net203 102 
Other long-term assets6,075 13,752 
Total assets$791,336 $889,926 
Liabilities and equity
Current liabilities
Current portion of long-term debt$860 $1,322 
Accounts payable—trade99,379 46,351 
Accrued liabilities58,436 67,581 
Deferred revenue7,276 7,863 
Billings in excess of costs and profits recognized9,705 1,817 
Total current liabilities175,656 124,934 
Long-term debt, net of current portion232,370 293,373 
Deferred income taxes, net834 1,952 
Operating lease liabilities34,745 44,536 
Other long-term liabilities18,605 18,895 
Total liabilities462,210 483,690 
Commitments and contingencies
Equity
Common stock, $0.01 par value, 14,800,000 shares authorized, 6,100,886 and 5,992,400 shares issued
61 60 
Additional paid-in capital1,249,962 1,242,720 
Treasury stock at cost, 467,153 and 410,877 shares
(135,562)(134,499)
Retained deficit(684,307)(601,656)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(101,028)(100,389)
Total equity329,126 406,236 
Total liabilities and equity$791,336 $889,926 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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Forum Energy Technologies, Inc. and subsidiaries
Consolidated statements of cash flows
  Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except share information)20212020
Cash flows from operating activities
Net loss$(82,651)$(96,889)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in) investing activities:
Impairments of intangible assets, property and equipment 20,394 
Impairments of operating lease assets 15,370 
Depreciation expense17,064 24,484 
Amortization of intangible assets25,112 26,516 
Stock-based compensation expense7,594 9,784 
Inventory write downs8,096 100,794 
Provision for doubtful accounts2,424 1,127 
Deferred income taxes2,791 (149)
Gain on disposition of business (88,375)
Loss (gain) on extinguishment of debt5,290 (72,478)
Deferred loan costs written off 2,262 
Other5,210 3,703 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities
Accounts receivable—trade(44,959)65,541 
Inventories1,935 51,621 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(8,078)17,794 
Cost and estimated profits in excess of billings84 (4,317)
Accounts payable, deferred revenue and other accrued liabilities36,327 (69,399)
Billings in excess of costs and estimated profits earned7,986 (3,900)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$(15,775)$3,883 
Cash flows from investing activities
Capital expenditures for property and equipment(2,399)(2,246)
Proceeds from the sale of property and equipment7,007 5,292 
Proceeds from settlement of note receivable10,784  
Acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired(3,411) 
Proceeds from the sale of business(1,283)105,204 
Net cash provided by investing activities$10,698 $108,250 
Cash flows from financing activities
Borrowings on revolving Credit Facility 182,322 
Repayments on revolving Credit Facility(13,126)(169,196)
Cash paid to repurchase 2025 Notes and 2021 Notes(58,596)(40,270)
Bond exchange early participation payment (3,500)
Repurchases of stock(1,414)(195)
Payment of capital lease obligations(1,517)(1,179)
Deferred financing costs(1,590)(9,747)
Net cash used in financing activities$(76,243)$(41,765)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash(439)338 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(81,759)70,706 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period128,617 57,911 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$46,858 $128,617 
Supplemental cash flow disclosures
Cash paid for interest27,068 23,763 
Cash paid (refunded) for income taxes2,444 (13,941)
Noncash investing and financing activities
Operating lease right of use assets obtained in exchange for lease obligations2,340 4,505 
Finance lease right of use assets obtained in exchange for lease obligations463 1,401 
Accrued purchases of property and equipment  
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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Forum Energy Technologies, Inc. and subsidiaries
Consolidated statements of changes in stockholders’ equity
(in thousands)Common stockAdditional
paid-in
capital
Treasury stockRetained deficitAccumulated
other
comprehensive
income / (loss)
Total
common
stockholders’
equity
Balance at December 31, 2019$1,189 $1,231,650 $(134,493)$(503,369)$(108,938)$486,039 
Restricted stock issuance, net of forfeitures7 (196)— — — (189)
Stock-based compensation expense— 9,784 — — — 9,784 
Shares issued in employee stock purchase plan2 344 — — — 346 
Adjustment for adoption of ASU 2016-13— — — (